Regions Hungary

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Austrian and Hungarian citizens working in war-related industries were exempt from many restrictions on enemy aliens, but many labor leaders and intellectuals were arrested and interned, often … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Leopold Graf Berchtold, Habsburg foreign minister from 1912 to 1915, was confronted with military action during and after the Balkan Wars, yet kept peace. Then, the Sarajevo assassinations, blamed on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • István Burián was a leading Austro-Hungarian career diplomat and politician, rising to become the Monarchy’s longest-serving foreign minister during the First World War. Burián’s wartime … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In his youth, the archduke was introduced to the idea of federalism by Archduke Franz Ferdinand. During the first part of World War I, he became a skillful military leader without any political … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Under the terms of the 1867 constitution, Francis Joseph retained his prerogatives in foreign policy. His decision to opt for war in 1914 was largely a result of the frustrations of Austria’s … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This biographical overview of Archduke Franz Ferdinand examines the evolution of his difficult personality through the traumatic experiences of barely surviving tuberculosis and fighting for the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Germany’s offer of unconditional support to its Austro-Hungarian ally in July 1914 remains one of the most controversial decisions in modern history. Historians have interpreted the blank cheque in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Horthy was a naval officer of Austria-Hungary. During the First World War he was first in command of a cruiser and then chief commander of the navy. After the war he took part in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Béla Kun was a Hungarian communist politician. He began his career as a social democrat. During the First World War he was captured by the Russians and later became a Bolshevik in Russia. From 1918 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Prochaska Affair was a diplomatic dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, ostensibly concerning the fate of the Austro-Hungarian consul in Prizren. However, it carried deeper implications for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • On 25 May 1913 Colonel Alfred Redl, the former head of Austria-Hungary’s military espionage, committed suicide in Vienna. As it turned out, Redl had betrayed Austria-Hungary’s spy-network in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Joseph Roth was a Jewish writer and journalist. His experiences at the Eastern Front in Galicia in 1916–1917 and the demise of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the war had a lasting impact on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Camillo Ruggera was an officer of the General Staff in the Austro-Hungarian army. Assigned to the Supreme Command, on 29 October 1918 he was commissioned to make contact with the leaders of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although ''sanjak'' usually means any one of many Ottoman administrative units, one has become known as “the Sanjak.” Following the Treaty of Berlin the Sanjak of Novi Pazar became the symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Stephan Baron von Sarkotić was an Austro-Hungarian general who had already made his mark as a political officer prior to the outbreak of World War I. During the war, he formulated different … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Sixtus Affair was the failed attempt by Emperor Charles I. of Austria and his bother-in-law Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma to conclude a compromise peace with the members of the Entente-Powers … READ MORE

    Entry
  • István Tisza was a Hungarian politician and minister. He served as Prime Minister from 1903 to 1905 and from 1913 to 1917. Austria-Hungary entered the First World War during Tisza's second period as … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Before and at the beginning of World War I, various proposals concerning the creation of a third part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were brought up for discussion. Each of the aspiring groups … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Trianon is one of the Paris peace treaties that ended the First World War. It was concluded between Hungary and the Allied and Associated Powers on 4 June 1920 in the Grand Trianon … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Austro-Hungarian battleship ''Viribus Unitis'' was commissioned in reaction to the newly built Italian dreadnought, ''Dante Alighieri''. The ''Viribus Unitis'' was the first Austro-Hungarian ship … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The War Requirements Acts were passed in Austria-Hungary in 1912. They placed military requisitions under parliamentary control and helped the army to obtain the most needed products and services … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the First World War, Austria-Hungary implemented a state of emergency with several emergency laws overseen by the ''kaiserlich und königlich ''(''k.u.k.'') ''Kriegsüberwachungsamt'' (war … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By 1914 the leading states had succumbed to varying degrees of militarism, subordinating other interests to those of the armed forces, yet all were governed by regimes in which the ultimate authority … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • While World War I featured the largest armies ever assembled, it was also fought by unprecedented numbers of paramilitary fighters. In a situation where the line between combatant and non-combatant … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • October 1918 witnessed the collapse of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies, both greatly affected by war-weariness and starvation. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy lost any remaining loyalty from its … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This piece explores the visualisation of violence for home front audiences and shows that violence was often hinted at very strongly, but the actual act was avoided. All home front audiences were … READ MORE

    Thematic

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Austrian and Hungarian citizens working in war-related industries were exempt from many restrictions on enemy aliens, but many labor leaders and intellectuals were arrested and interned, often … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Leopold Graf Berchtold, Habsburg foreign minister from 1912 to 1915, was confronted with military action during and after the Balkan Wars, yet kept peace. Then, the Sarajevo assassinations, blamed on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • István Burián was a leading Austro-Hungarian career diplomat and politician, rising to become the Monarchy’s longest-serving foreign minister during the First World War. Burián’s wartime … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In his youth, the archduke was introduced to the idea of federalism by Archduke Franz Ferdinand. During the first part of World War I, he became a skillful military leader without any political … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Under the terms of the 1867 constitution, Francis Joseph retained his prerogatives in foreign policy. His decision to opt for war in 1914 was largely a result of the frustrations of Austria’s … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This biographical overview of Archduke Franz Ferdinand examines the evolution of his difficult personality through the traumatic experiences of barely surviving tuberculosis and fighting for the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Germany’s offer of unconditional support to its Austro-Hungarian ally in July 1914 remains one of the most controversial decisions in modern history. Historians have interpreted the blank cheque in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Horthy was a naval officer of Austria-Hungary. During the First World War he was first in command of a cruiser and then chief commander of the navy. After the war he took part in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Béla Kun was a Hungarian communist politician. He began his career as a social democrat. During the First World War he was captured by the Russians and later became a Bolshevik in Russia. From 1918 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Prochaska Affair was a diplomatic dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, ostensibly concerning the fate of the Austro-Hungarian consul in Prizren. However, it carried deeper implications for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • On 25 May 1913 Colonel Alfred Redl, the former head of Austria-Hungary’s military espionage, committed suicide in Vienna. As it turned out, Redl had betrayed Austria-Hungary’s spy-network in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Joseph Roth was a Jewish writer and journalist. His experiences at the Eastern Front in Galicia in 1916–1917 and the demise of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the war had a lasting impact on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Camillo Ruggera was an officer of the General Staff in the Austro-Hungarian army. Assigned to the Supreme Command, on 29 October 1918 he was commissioned to make contact with the leaders of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although ''sanjak'' usually means any one of many Ottoman administrative units, one has become known as “the Sanjak.” Following the Treaty of Berlin the Sanjak of Novi Pazar became the symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Stephan Baron von Sarkotić was an Austro-Hungarian general who had already made his mark as a political officer prior to the outbreak of World War I. During the war, he formulated different … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Sixtus Affair was the failed attempt by Emperor Charles I. of Austria and his bother-in-law Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma to conclude a compromise peace with the members of the Entente-Powers … READ MORE

    Entry
  • István Tisza was a Hungarian politician and minister. He served as Prime Minister from 1903 to 1905 and from 1913 to 1917. Austria-Hungary entered the First World War during Tisza's second period as … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Before and at the beginning of World War I, various proposals concerning the creation of a third part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were brought up for discussion. Each of the aspiring groups … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Trianon is one of the Paris peace treaties that ended the First World War. It was concluded between Hungary and the Allied and Associated Powers on 4 June 1920 in the Grand Trianon … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Austro-Hungarian battleship ''Viribus Unitis'' was commissioned in reaction to the newly built Italian dreadnought, ''Dante Alighieri''. The ''Viribus Unitis'' was the first Austro-Hungarian ship … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The War Requirements Acts were passed in Austria-Hungary in 1912. They placed military requisitions under parliamentary control and helped the army to obtain the most needed products and services … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the First World War, Austria-Hungary implemented a state of emergency with several emergency laws overseen by the ''kaiserlich und königlich ''(''k.u.k.'') ''Kriegsüberwachungsamt'' (war … READ MORE

    Entry