Regions Poland

Survey Articles (Regional)

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Jan Bloch was an entrepreneur, social activist and pacifist. At the end of his life, he published a comprehensive work in which he predicted the course and consequences of World War I. He warned of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ignacy Daszyński was one of the foremost figures on the Polish political scene in the first half of the 20th century. He personified a subset of elites who merged the struggle for social … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Roman Stanisław Dmowski was a Polish politician and most importantly the co-founder of National Democracy in Poland before the First World War and during the interwar period. He was also the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • General Józef Haller was one of the best known Polish military commanders of the First World War period, a lieutenant of the Polish Legions, commander of the II Brigade of the Polish Legions, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Kostiuchnówka occurred during the Brusilov Offensive in the Volhynia region on 4–6 July 1916. It was fought between the Austro-Hungarian Corps under General Leopold Hauer’s command … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In World War I Lviv played an important role as a political and administrative center of Galicia and was of great strategic significance as one of the biggest garrisons of Austria-Hungary in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a virtuoso pianist. He made use of his popularity in the United States and western Europe to propagate the idea of Polish independence and state sovereignty. In … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Józef Klemens Piłsudski was a Polish statesman, socialist politician, freedom fighter, and soldier. He commanded the Polish Legions during the First World War, and served as the first chief of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Bayonne Company was the first Polish unit in France, formed in 1914 as a unit of the French Foreign Legion. The Polish Army in France was created in June 1917 and consisted of volunteers. After … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In the 19th century, the German-Polish borderlands became the object of nationalist designs on both sides. After 1871, the German nation-state sought to limit Polish citizens’ room for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Związek Legionistów Polskich'' (Polish Legionaries Union), or ZLP, was an association of veterans of Polish Legions who had fought under Józef Piłsudski for Poland’s independence during … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the outbreak of the Great War, two Polish Legions were formed within the Austro-Hungarian army. They eventually increased to three brigades that participated in a series of important campaigns in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish-Lithuanian border conflict (1914-1924) was a consequence of the processes of modernisation and the course of the First World War. Following the creation of the states of Lithuania and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish Army was born out of the chaos of revolutionary Russia. The Russian authorities accepted its establishment, and later the army sought an agreement with the occupying Germans. Polish units … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Polish paramilitary organizations were active in Galicia from 1910 to 1914 with the permission of the Austro-Hungarian army’s intelligence service. Their ostensible aim was to militarily train … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The hostilities between Bolshevik Russia and Poland started as early as 1919. In April 1920, Poland and Ukraine liberated Kiev from Bolshevik control. However, in the summer of 1919, the Bolsheviks … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish-Ukrainian conflict over Eastern Galicia in 1918-19 refers to an armed conflict between Poland and the West Ukrainian National Republic (''Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika,'' ZUNR). … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Riga was signed by Poland and the Soviet state on 18 March 1921 and was preceded by a preliminary treaty of 12 October 1920. It ended the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920 and was a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw was originally built to honor the fallen Polish soldiers of the wars from 1914 to 1921. After the First World War the Cult of the Unknown Soldier … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Before and at the beginning of World War I, various proposals concerning the creation of a third part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were brought up for discussion. Each of the aspiring groups … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article examines the conditions, forms and consequences of forced labor and recruitment during the First World War, especially in German-occupied northern France, Belgium, Russian-Poland and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • After an initial wave of interest in 1914 and the immediate post-war period, international historiography long neglected the wartime occupation of territories inhabited by large civilian populations. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War caused unprecedented disruption to societies across the globe, from Western and (especially) Central and Eastern Europe to East Africa. While many survivors could celebrate an end … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article summarizes and compares the principal arguments and strategies of propaganda at the home front, the military front, as well as in neutral and enemy countries. These included the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article addresses the scale of wartime population displacement in continental Europe, the relief efforts made on behalf of refugees, their impact on host communities, and the cultural … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The conduct of warfare in 1914-1918 included extensive population resettlement in all theatres of war in Europe, both as a result of pre-emptive decisions by civilians to flee in order to evade the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores how the anticipation, reality, and memory of sacrifice informed experiences and legacies of World War I. Drawing on representative examples from multiple nations, I suggest that … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay examines how the "everyday" functions in war, not only for those on the home fronts, but for those in combat roles and for those living between the lines. Five important qualities, among … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of peacemaking after the First World War from the armistices of 1918 until 1923. It considers the outcomes of the five Parisian treaties (Versailles, Saint-Germain and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Veterans’ associations formed an influential social movement during the interwar period. They provided the platform for former soldiers to commemorate the war and their fallen comrades and to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Military sources provide the primary statistics of war losses and casualties during World War I. In order to review and eventually revise their figures, one must understand how military statistics … READ MORE

    Thematic

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Jan Bloch was an entrepreneur, social activist and pacifist. At the end of his life, he published a comprehensive work in which he predicted the course and consequences of World War I. He warned of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ignacy Daszyński was one of the foremost figures on the Polish political scene in the first half of the 20th century. He personified a subset of elites who merged the struggle for social … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Roman Stanisław Dmowski was a Polish politician and most importantly the co-founder of National Democracy in Poland before the First World War and during the interwar period. He was also the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • General Józef Haller was one of the best known Polish military commanders of the First World War period, a lieutenant of the Polish Legions, commander of the II Brigade of the Polish Legions, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Kostiuchnówka occurred during the Brusilov Offensive in the Volhynia region on 4–6 July 1916. It was fought between the Austro-Hungarian Corps under General Leopold Hauer’s command … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In World War I Lviv played an important role as a political and administrative center of Galicia and was of great strategic significance as one of the biggest garrisons of Austria-Hungary in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a virtuoso pianist. He made use of his popularity in the United States and western Europe to propagate the idea of Polish independence and state sovereignty. In … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Józef Klemens Piłsudski was a Polish statesman, socialist politician, freedom fighter, and soldier. He commanded the Polish Legions during the First World War, and served as the first chief of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Bayonne Company was the first Polish unit in France, formed in 1914 as a unit of the French Foreign Legion. The Polish Army in France was created in June 1917 and consisted of volunteers. After … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In the 19th century, the German-Polish borderlands became the object of nationalist designs on both sides. After 1871, the German nation-state sought to limit Polish citizens’ room for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Związek Legionistów Polskich'' (Polish Legionaries Union), or ZLP, was an association of veterans of Polish Legions who had fought under Józef Piłsudski for Poland’s independence during … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the outbreak of the Great War, two Polish Legions were formed within the Austro-Hungarian army. They eventually increased to three brigades that participated in a series of important campaigns in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish-Lithuanian border conflict (1914-1924) was a consequence of the processes of modernisation and the course of the First World War. Following the creation of the states of Lithuania and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish Army was born out of the chaos of revolutionary Russia. The Russian authorities accepted its establishment, and later the army sought an agreement with the occupying Germans. Polish units … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Polish paramilitary organizations were active in Galicia from 1910 to 1914 with the permission of the Austro-Hungarian army’s intelligence service. Their ostensible aim was to militarily train … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The hostilities between Bolshevik Russia and Poland started as early as 1919. In April 1920, Poland and Ukraine liberated Kiev from Bolshevik control. However, in the summer of 1919, the Bolsheviks … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Polish-Ukrainian conflict over Eastern Galicia in 1918-19 refers to an armed conflict between Poland and the West Ukrainian National Republic (''Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika,'' ZUNR). … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Riga was signed by Poland and the Soviet state on 18 March 1921 and was preceded by a preliminary treaty of 12 October 1920. It ended the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920 and was a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw was originally built to honor the fallen Polish soldiers of the wars from 1914 to 1921. After the First World War the Cult of the Unknown Soldier … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Before and at the beginning of World War I, various proposals concerning the creation of a third part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were brought up for discussion. Each of the aspiring groups … READ MORE

    Entry