Since 1918 New Zealand historiography of the First World War has produced a respectable record of historical writing, though through rather irregular efforts. A burst of publications in the 1920s and 1930s was followed by a decline, then, in a development consistent with international trends, renewed attention from the mid/late 1980s. The burst of production accompanying the war’s centenary would seem to confirm the subject as one accumulating consideration in inverse relation to the passage of time.
Much of this work has been directed towards military subjects – notably campaigns, studies of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) and battlefield experiences – and commentators have noted conspicuous gaps in the historiography. However, changes within historical methodologies and interests from the second half of the 20th century have seen trends towards the exploration of wider dimensions of the war and academic theses and articles, entries within anthology works and a growing range of publications attest to a broadening consideration of the subject.
The First Generation↑
The earliest writings appeared around the early 1920s. Most salient are four official history volumes commissioned by the government – covering campaigns in Gallipoli, France, Palestine and minor campaigns and services – supplemented by various unit-produced histories. These works revolved around contemporary impulses to chronicle a collective effort within a conflict whose broad shape was part of general public consciousness.
Later assessments of these works have often been critical. Comments have been made on their "inadequacy" and their "turgid prose", and revisionist histories have argued that they present an officer’s outlook. Tacit acknowledgement of the project’s shortcomings might be glimpsed in the far more extensive nature of the forty-eight volumes of the Official Histories of the Second World War. Conversely, some of these volumes served as standard works on their subjects until relatively recently and are still referenced in contemporary works as serious investigations. Furthermore, their reflections on the war’s meanings, costs and place in posterity have seen them cited as useful indicators of contemporary attitudes and sentiments.
A second component of post-war writing emerged in memoirs. These include command perspectives such as General Sir Alexander Godley’s (1867-1957) Life of an Irish Soldier (1939). However, the men formerly under Godley’s command also produced their own, often highly personal, testimonies. Some examples include C.A.L. Treadwell’s (1889-1966) Recollections of an Amateur Soldier (1936) which asserts a relatively positive sense of the war’s rationale and his endurance of his experiences. A more complex view is available in Ormond Burton’s (1893-1974) The Silent Division (1935). An interwar convert to Christian Pacifism, Burton would become a renowned conscientious objector during 1939-1945: his writing frequently focuses on the common "digger" as embodying distinctions and ideals which he argued would form the basis of a national character. Conversely, the journalist Robin Hyde (1906-1939) conveyed the exploits of the veteran Douglas Stark, aka "Starkie", in Passport to Hell (1937). Indicative of international trends towards more graphic and cynical representations of the war, the text dwells on the violent and ignoble aspects of Starkie’s war experiences.
The four decades after 1945 saw a decline in writing on the war, arguably reflecting a broader waning in public consideration of 1914-1918. Unit-produced histories and memoirs tailed off with Major John Robertson’s With the Cameliers in Palestine (1938) and Cecil Malthus’s (1890-1976) ANZAC: A Retrospective (1965) forming some of the last examples of veteran self-publishing. Some exceptions to this trend can be found in academic work, notably within theses and articles devoted to the developing interests of social history (discussed below).
Many elements of the first generation remain core features in the resurgence of interest in the war from the 1980s. The rationale of highlighting specific service or unit efforts has produced new works on, for example, nursing, the Maori Pioneer Battalion, 2nd Canterbury Battalion and the New Zealand Division. Furthermore, various publications have sought to update and revise campaign histories through the lens of new military history. Christopher Pusgley’s Gallipoli: The New Zealand Story (1984) was an early indication of a fresh interest in New Zealand’s part in that operation. Terry Kinloch’s Devils on Horses (2007) examines the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade’s involvement in the Palestine Campaign and Matthew Wright’s New Zealand on the Western Front (2005) and Shattered Glory (2010) investigate involvement in the Middle East and Europe. Others have contemplated specific battles. Glyn Harper’s Dark Journey (2007) considers New Zealanders’ experiences of key battles on the Western Front and Andrew Macdonald has investigated New Zealand’s experience of the Somme Offensive in On My Way to the Somme (2005) and Passchendaele in Passchendaele: The Anatomy of a Tragedy (2013).
The publication of soldiers’ accounts also remains a point of interest. As veterans became scarce towards the end of the century descendants took up the task of publishing diaries and letters, an act indicative of how kinship links remain a point of access to the war. In the cases of particular soldiers, professional historians also fulfilled this labour; consider William G. Malone’s (1859-1915) and Herbert Hart’s (1882-1968) writings, published respectively as No Better Death (2005) and The Devil’s Own War (2008). Broader studies of soldiers’ writings are available in Letters from the Battlefield (2001) and Letters from Gallipoli (2011), both edited by Glyn Harper. Written accounts from New Zealand soldiers are also collected in The Penguin Book of New Zealanders at War (2009), edited by Gavin McLean and Ian McGibbon.
Drawing lines of continuity between the first generation and works produced since the 1980s should not suggest a static approach. Indicating that a strong consciousness of the war’s history can no longer be taken for granted, many of the aforementioned works used the conflict’s historical distance to question the war’s larger impacts; looking back in lieu of the first generations’ tendency to look forward. Additionally, much of this work reflects the trends of new military history. Christopher Pugsley’s On the Fringe of Hell (1991) and The ANZAC Experience (2004) offer key examples. Both pursue subjects grounded in the fundamentals of conventional military history – respectively troop discipline and the ANZAC Corps "learning curve" into a professional fighting force – but make extensive use of diaries, letters, photography, sketches and oral records.
This shifting approach to battlefield experience is most evident in several pioneering works of social history in the late 1980s. The Great Adventure (1988), edited by Jock Phillips, Nicholas Boyack, and E.P. Malone, for example, presented the writings of eight New Zealand soldiers along with background information. Boyack’s Behind the Lines (1989) also surveyed soldiers’ diaries and letters and claimed to capture the authentic experiences and attitudes of the common soldier against the faux tenets of the Official Histories and popular mythology. Interest in individual accounts is also evident in oral history work. In the Shadow of War (1990), edited by Boyack and Jane Tolerton, showcases the findings of a project to interview veterans on various aspects of their experiences. This work has since been followed up by Tolerton’s An Awfully Big Adventure (2013).
These works also indicate new interests in aspects of the war experience and pursue, for example, remembrance, troop (ill)discipline and venereal disease. More recent articles and entries in anthology works such as New Zealand’s Great War (2007), edited by John Crawford and Ian McGibbon, and The Great Adventure Ends, edited by Nathalie Philippe (2013), also showcase this trend and have seen consideration of varied aspects of experiences: repatriation; troop entertainment; soldier tourism; and shell shock.
Beyond the Battlefield↑
Though there are some precursors from earlier decades, the post-1980s’ revival has also seen increased interest in the social interaction and cultural representation of the war beyond the battlefield. The often eclectic nature of cultural history has sometimes seen precise subjects selected to investigate this. Examples include religion, photography, cartooning, death and bereavement, war memorials, regional studies and material culture.
More systematic studies have emerged around the context of New Zealand’s war. While the forces which took societies to war are a universal issue, factors of distance, isolation and a junior position within a larger coalition have raised questions around New Zealand’s relation with the conflict, often accented with concerns around identity and interests. One response has seen studies of the geopolitical context of commitment. Ian McGibbon’s The Path to Gallipoli (1991), for example, studies the evolution of New Zealand’s defence policies, circa 1840-1915, and argues the rationale of involvement in the Dardanelles campaign. In 2000, Pugsley produced a comparable study of the links between pre-war defence planning and the dispatch of the NZEF. The political/diplomatic and economic idiosyncrasies of New Zealand’s position within the imperial partnership have likewise formed a point of interest in several works and form issues within biographical studies of political and military leadership.
Studies of military, political and economic commitment often touch upon the broader social/cultural contours of wartime New Zealand, though this has also been pursued in its own right. An early example was produced by Sir James Allen (1855-1942) in an entry for The Cambridge History of the British Empire which described New Zealand’s war effort as "the outcome of the spirit of its people." In 1988 Paul Baker analysed the relationship between society and war effort in a study of the introduction, application and enforcement of conscription: King and Country Call. Drawing on newspapers, interviews, cartoons, political papers, letters and photographs, the text provides insights on various social aspects and remains among the most valuable works on wartime New Zealand society. More recently, Steven Loveridge’s Calls to Arms (2014) examines wartime society and the cultural context in which commitment to the war effort was mobilised. A radically contrasting view to works emphasising the political, economic, defence and cultural rationales for commitment is available in Stevan Eldred-Grigg’s The Great Wrong War (2010). Eldred-Grigg’s account shifts culpability onto the New Zealand government whose decision to go to war is described as "wholly avoidable, wholly unnecessary and almost wholly disastrous."
Other studies have elected to investigate specific social groups, often those that experienced social conflict or change. These include those affected by wartime sectarian discord, anti-Germanism and impacts on labour relations and specific occupations. Interest in social tensions and commitments to rediscover "history’s losers" has also seen a spotlighting of misfit figures; Ettie Rout (1877-1936), who was instrumental in developing prophylactic kits, and inspected brothels to check VD rates in the New Zealand Army, and who went unmentioned in the official history of the medical services, has since been the subject of specialist and general attention. Interest has likewise grown around pacifists, anti-militarists and conscientious objectors. In 1919 Harry Holland made an early effort to collect and report on the treatment of objectors in Armageddon or Calvary. Later work by P.S. O’Connor, Paul Baker and David Grant revisited government policies and the treatment of objectors. However, this interest is most encapsulated in the success of Archibald Baxter’s (1881-1970) We Will Not Cease, republished numerous times since its initial 1939 run and described as "a classic of anti-war literature." The text details Baxter’s recollections of the imprisonment, starvation, beatings and field punishments he endured during an effort to coerce fourteen objectors into service. Further insights into dissent, resistance and state reaction are evident within writings on figures connected with the labour movement, Maori resistance and anarchism.
Other branches of activity have emerged with the rise of women's and indigenous history. Both have contemplated the war as a site in which the state of race relations and the female condition were reflected. Work by Monty Soutar and Franchesca Walker consider the complexities and meanings apparent in Maori involvement in the conflict, though precursors of this interest can be seen in James Cowan’s The Maoris in the Great War (1926) and O’Connor’s 1967 article. Women’s history has produced comparable questioning of female roles within the conflict. Female labours have been explored in Margaret Tennant’s work on patriotic fundraising as well as in Melanie Nolan’s work on welfare and the wartime labour force. Some of the ideological aspects of female activism have been touched on in Graham Hucker’s study of the Women’s Anti-German League and Megan Hutching’s study of women who opposed the war. Broad insights are available in Lauris Edmond’s and Carolyn Milward’s edited collection Women in Wartime (1995) and Val Wood’s War Brides (1991) and unpublished academic research contains rich details and data. Consideration of gender has also seen investigation of wartime masculinity. Phillips’ larger analysis of New Zealand masculinity, A Man’s Country? (1987), cuts through 1914-1918 and subsequent works have built on this investigation of wartime representations of manliness.
Lastly, historians of children have displayed a comparable aspiration to explore how the young experienced and were affected by the war. An emerging area of study, with work taking the form of articles and unpublished theses, a central interest has been how children were integrated into the physical and ideological panorama of the war. However, oral history interviews of childhood memories and examination of children’s writings have also explored how children experienced and mediated the war’s impacts.
Historical investigation of New Zealand’s war experiences have been driven by both bursts of attention and by the pursuit of various subjects since 1918. Investigation of battlefield events has formed, and remains, a core feature of the historiographical record. However, recent decades illustrate both a more varied contemplation of battlefield history and a deeper consideration of broader aspects of New Zealand’s war.
Steven Loveridge, Victoria University of Wellington
Section Editor: Kate Hunter
- For an extensive list of works see New Zealand and the First World War: a bibliography of non-fiction sources, online: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/files/documents/new-zealand-first-world-war-bibliography.pdf (retrieved: 9 April 2014).
- Montgomerie, Deborah: Reconnaissance. Twentieth-Century New Zealand War History at Century’s Turn, in: New Zealand Journal of History 37/1, (2003), pp. 62-79, online: http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/document.php?wid=255&action=null (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Dennis, Peter / Grey, Jeffrey: New Zealanders in the AIF. An Introduction to the AIF Database Project, in: Crawford, John / McGibbon, Ian (eds.): New Zealand’s Great War. New Zealand, the Allies, and the First World War, Auckland 2007, p. 395.
- Waite, Fred: The New Zealanders at Gallipoli, Auckland 1919, online: https://archive.org/details/newzealandersatg00waituoft (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Stewart, H.: The New Zealand Division, 1916-1919. A Popular History Based on Official Records, Auckland 1921.
- Powles, C. Guy: The New Zealanders in Sinai and Palestine, Auckland 1922, online: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Sina.html (retreived: 29 January 2015).
- Drew, H.T.B. (ed.): The War Effort of New Zealand, Auckland 1923, online: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Effo.html (retreieved: 29 January 2015).
- Dennis, Peter / Grey, Jeffrey: New Zealanders in the AIF, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, p. 395; McGibbon, Ian: Official War Histories, in: McGibbon, Ian (ed.): The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History, Auckland 2000, p. 400; Boyack, Nicholas: Behind the Lines. The Lives of New Zealand Soldiers in the First World War, Wellington 1989.
- Worthy, Scott: ‘Light and Shade’. The New Zealand Written Remembrance of the Great War, 1915-1939, in: War and Society 22/1 (2004), pp. 19-40.
- For a similar example of this manner of fiction see Lee, John A.: Civilian into Soldier, London 1937.
- Robinson, Helen: Lest we Forget?: The Fading of New Zealand War Commemorations, 1946-1966, in: New Zealand Journal of History 44/1 (2010), pp. 76-91, online: http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/document.php?wid=1825&action=null (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Rogers, Anna: While You’re Away. New Zealand Nurses at War 1899-1948, Auckland 2003.
- Pugsley, Christopher: Hokowhitu a Tu. The Maori Pioneer Battalion in the First World War, Auckland 1995.
- Latter, Edward: Marching Onwards. A History of the 2nd Battalion, Christchurch 1992.
- Stack, Wayne: The New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War I, Oxford 2011. The effort to connect locals with foreign locales might also be glimpsed in battlefield tourism literature. For example see Gray, John H.: From the Uttermost Ends of the Earth. The New Zealand Division on the Western Front 1916-1918: A History and Guide To Its Battlefields, Christchurch 2010.
- For examples see Ward, Chrissie (ed.): Dear Lizzie. A Kiwi Soldier Writes from the Battlefields of World War One, Auckland 2000; Croad, Nancy (ed.): My Dear Home. The Letters of Three Knight Brothers who Gave their Lives during WWI, Auckland 1995; Collis, Stewart / Langton, Graham (eds.): Les Collis. First World War Diaries, Wellington 1999.
- Clarke, Stephen: Return, Repatriation, Remembrance and the Returned Soldiers’ Association 1916-22, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 157-181; Walker, Elizabeth: ‘The Living Death’. The Repatriation Experience of New Zealand’s Disabled Great War Servicemen, MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington 2013, online: http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/handle/10063/2641 (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Clarkson, Coralie: The Reality of Return. Exploring the Experiences of World War One Soldiers after their Return to New Zealand, MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington 2012, online: http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/handle/10063/2072 (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Parsons, Gwen: ‘The Many Derelicts of the War’. Great War Veterans and Repatriation in Dunedin and Ashburton, 1918 to 1928, PhD thesis, University of Otago 2008.
- Burns, Christopher: A Taste of Civvy Street. Heroic Adventure and Domesticity in the Soldier Concert Parties of the First and Second World Wars, in: Journal of New Zealand Studies 13 (2012), pp. 115-127, online: https://ojs.victoria.ac.nz/jnzs/article/view/1196/1121 (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Barnes, Felicity: New Zealand's London. A Colony and its Metropolis, Auckland 2012, pp. 11, 16, 53-69.
- Parsons, Gwen A.: The Construction of Shell Shock in New Zealand, 1919-1939. A Reassessment, in: Social History of Medicine 26/1 (2013), pp. 1-18; Weaver, John / Wright, David, Shell Shock and the Politics of Asylum Committal in New Zealand, 1916-22, in: Health and History 7/1 (2005), pp. 17-40, online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40111512 (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Lineham, Peter: First World War Religion, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 467-492; Davidson, Allan: New Zealand Churches and Death in the First World War, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 447-466.
- Callister, Sandy: The Face of War. New Zealand’s Great War Photography, Auckland 2008.
- Murray, Sarah: A Cartoon War. The Cartoons of the New Zealand Freelance and New Zealand Observer as Historical Sources, August 1914-November 1918, Wellington 2012.
- Hunter, Kathryn: ‘Sleep on Dear Ernie, Your Battles are O’er’. A Glimpse of a Mourning Community, Invercargill, New Zealand, 1914–1925, in: War in History 14/1 (2007), pp. 36-62; Patrick, Rachel: Speaking Across the Borderline. Intimate Connections, Grief and Spiritualism in the Letters of Elizabeth Stewart during the First World War, in: History Australia 10/3 (2013), pp. 109-128.
- Phillips, Jock / Maclean, Chris: The Sorrow and the Pride. New Zealand War Memorials, Wellington 1990; Inglis, Ken / Phillips, Jock: War Memorials in Australia and New Zealand, in: Rickard, John / Spearritt, Peter (eds.): Packaging the Past? Public Histories, Melbourne 1991, pp. 179-191.
- Hucker, Graham: The Rural Home Front. A New Zealand Region and the Great War 1914-1926, PhD thesis, Massey University 2006, online: http://mro.massey.ac.nz/handle/10179/1103 (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Parsons, Gwen: Debating the War: The Discourses of War in the Christchurch Community, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 550-568.
- Ross, Kirstie / Hunter, Kate: Holding on to Home: New Zealand Stories and Objects of the First World War. Wellington 2014.
- For further works on defence policies see McGibbon, Ian: The Shaping of New Zealand’s War Effort, August-October 1914, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 49-68; McGibbon, Ian: Blue Water Rationale. The Naval Defence of New Zealand, Wellington 1981; Wright, Matthew J.: Sir Joseph Ward and New Zealand’s Naval Defence Policy, 1907-12. In: Political Science 4/1 (1989), pp. 48-58.
- Pugsley, Christopher: At the Empire’s Call. New Zealand Expeditionary Force Planning, 1901-1918, in: Moses, John A. / Pugsley, Christopher (eds.): The German Empire and Britain’s Pacific Dominions, 1871-1919, Claremont 2000, pp. 221-238.
- For examples see Boyd, Mary: A Footnote on New Zealand’s Attitude to Dominion Status 1919–1921. The Procedure for Enacting a Constitution for her Samoan Mandate, in: Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies 3 (1965), pp. 64–70; Pfeiffer, Rolf: Exercises in Loyalty and Trouble-Making. Anglo-New Zealand Friction at the Time of the Great War, 1914-1919, in: Australian Journal of Politics & History 38/2 (1992), pp. 178-192; Kay, Richard: In Pursuit of Victory. British-New Zealand Relations during the First World War, PhD thesis, University of Otago 2001, online: http://otago.ourarchive.ac.nz/handle/10523/352 (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Drew, The War Effort 1923, pp. 233-243, online: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1-Effo.html (retreieved: 29 January 2015).; Martin, John E.: War Economy. In: Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History 2000, pp. 581-583; Everton, Alan: Government Intervention in the New Zealand Economy, 1914-18. Its Aims and Effectiveness, MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington 1995.
- For Prime Minister William Massey see Watson, James: Makers of the Modern World. London et al. 2010; and Watson James / Paterson, Lachy (eds.): A Great New Zealand Prime Minister? Reappraising William Ferguson Massey, Dunedin 2011. For Deputy Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward see Bassett, Michael: Sir Joseph Ward. A Political Biography, Auckland 1993. In regard to military leadership see Vennell, Jock: The Forgotten General. New Zealand’s World War I Commander Major-General Sir Andrew Russell, Crows Nest, New South Wales 2011.
- Allen, Sir J.: New Zealand in the World War. In: Rose, J. Holland / Newton, A.P. / Benians, E.A. (eds.): The Cambridge History of the British Empire, 7/2, Cambridge 1933, pp. 224-241.
- Eldred-Grigg, Stevan: The Great Wrong War. New Zealand Society in WW1, Auckland 2010.
- O’Connor, P.S.: Storm over the Clergy. New Zealand 1917, in: Journal of Religious History 4/2 (1966), pp. 129-148; O’Connor P.S.: Sectarian Conflict in New Zealand, 1911-1920. In: Political Science 19/1 (1967), pp. 3-16.
- Francis, Andrew: ‘To Be Truly British We Must Be Anti-German’. New Zealand, Enemy Aliens, and the Great War Experience, 1914-1919, Oxford et al. 2012; Francis, Andrew: Anti-Alienism in New Zealand during the Great War. The von Zedlitz Affair, 1915, in: Immigrants & Minorities 24/3 (2006), pp. 251–76; Loveridge, Steven: A German is Always a German?: Representations of Enemies, Germans and Race in New Zealand Towards and during the First World War, in: New Zealand Journal of History 48/1 (2014), pp. 51-71.
- For examples see Watson, J.: Patriotism, Profits and Problems. New Zealand Farming during the Great War, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 534-549; Richardson, Len: Politics and War. Coal Miners and Conscription, 1914-18, in: May, P.R. (ed.), Miners and Militants: Politics in Westland 1865-1918, Christchurch 1975, pp. 128-156.
- O’Connor P.S.: Venus and the Lonely Kiwi. The War Effort of Miss Ettie A. Rout, in: New Zealand Journal of History 1/1 (1967), pp. 11-32, online: http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/document.php?wid=1685&action=null (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Tolerton, Jane: Ettie. A Life of Ettie Rout, Auckland 1992.
- Grant, David: Out in the Cold. Pacifists and Conscientious Objectors in New Zealand during World War II, Auckland, 1986; Locke, Elsie: Peace People. A History of Peace Activities in New Zealand, Christchurch 1992; Weitzel, R.L.: Pacifists and Anti-Militarists in New Zealand, 1909-1914, in: New Zealand Journal of History 7/2 (1973), pp. 128-147, online: http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/document.php?wid=1498&action=null (retrieved 29 January 2015).
- O’Connor, P.S.: The Awkward Ones. Dealing with Conscience, 1916-1918, New Zealand Journal of History 8/2 (1974), pp. 118-136, online: v (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Baker, Paul: King and Country Call. New Zealanders, Conscription and the Great War, Auckland 1988.
- Grant, David: Field Punishment No. 1. Archibald Baxter, Mark Briggs and New Zealand’s Anti-Militarist Tradition, Wellington 2008.
- Baxter, Archibald: We Will Not Cease, Auckland 2003, p. 10.
- See also Tate, Margaret: A Forgotten Hero. In: Manawatu Journal of History 4 (2008), pp. 23-32, which considers Mark Briggs, another one of the fourteen.
- Nolan, Melanie (ed.): War and Class. The Diary of Jack McCullough, Wellington 2009; O’Farrell, P.J.: H.E. Holland. Revolutionary Socialist, Canberra 1957; Bassett, Michael: Tomorrow Comes the Song. A Life of Peter Fraser, Auckland 2000.
- King, Michael: Te Puea. A Life, Auckland 1977; Derby, Mark: The Prophet and the Policeman. The Story of Rua Kenana and John Cullen, Nelson 2009.
- Davidson, Jared: Sewing Freedom. Philip Josephs, Transnationalism & early New Zealand Anarchism, Edinburgh 2013.
- Soutar, Monty: Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu. A Coming of Age?, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 96-105.
- Walker, Franchesca: ‘Descendants of a Warrior Race’. The Maori Contingent, New Zealand Pioneer Battalion, and Martial Race Myth, 1914-19, in: War & Society 31/1 (2012), pp. 1-21, online: http://www.maneyonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/204243411X13201386799091 (retrieved: 2 February 2015).
- O’Connor, P.S.: The Recruitment of Maori Soldiers, 1914-18, in: Political Science, 19/2 (1967), pp. 48-83.
- Tennant, Margaret: Fun and Fundraising. The Selling of Charity in New Zealand’s Past, in: Social History 38/1 (2013), pp. 46-65, online: http://www.academia.edu/6922831/Fun_and_Fundraising_the_selling_of_charity_in_New_Zealands_past (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Nolan, Melanie: ‘Keeping the Home Fires Burning’. Gender, Welfare, and the First World War, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 493-515.
- Unpublished essay held in the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand: MS-Papers-5163 (1915–1919), Hucker, Graham fl.1991: Bundling Out the Hun: The Women’s Anti-German League in New Zealand during the First World War.
- Hutching, Megan: The Moloch of War. New Zealand Women Who Opposed the War, in: Crawford / McGibbon, New Zealand’s Great War 2007, pp. 85-95.
- Luxford, Sarah: Passengers for War? The Involvement of New Zealand Women in Employment during the Great War 1914-1918, MA thesis, Massey University 2005; Griffiths, Shelley: Feminism and the Ideology of Motherhood in New Zealand, 1896–1930, MA thesis, University of Otago 1984; Mcleod, Jan: Activities of New Zealand Women during World War I’, research essay, University of Otago 1978.
- Loveridge, Steven: ‘Soldiers and Shirkers’. Modernity and New Zealand Masculinity during the Great War, in: New Zealand Journal of History 47/1 (2013), pp. 59-79; Troughton, Geoffrey M.: Jesus and the Ideal of the Manly Man in New Zealand after World War One. In: Journal of Religious History 30/1 (2006), pp. 45-60, online: http://www.academia.edu/3690152/Jesus_and_the_Ideal_of_the_Manly_Man_in_New_Zealand_after_World_War_One (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Malone, E.P.: The New Zealand School Journal and the Imperial Ideology, in: New Zealand Journal of History 7/1 (1973), pp. 12-27, online: www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/document.php?wid=1481&action=null (retrieved: 29 January 2015); Challinor, Deborah: Children and War. A Study of the Impact of the First World War on New Zealand Children, PhD thesis, University of Waikato 1993.
- Graham, Jeanine: Young New Zealanders and the Great War. Exploring the Impact and Legacy of the First World War, 1914-2014, in: Paedagogica Historica 44/4 (2008), pp. 429-444.
- Bennett, Charlotte: ‘Now the War is Over, We Have Something Else to Worry Us’. New Zealand Children’s Responses to Crises, 1914–1918, in: The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 7/1 (2014), pp. 19-41, online: http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/xmlui/handle/10063/2280 (retrieved: 29 January 2015).
- Baker, Paul: King and country call. New Zealanders, conscription, and the Great War, Auckland 1988: Auckland University Press.
- Crawford, John / McGibbon, Ian C. (eds.): New Zealand's Great War. New Zealand, the Allies, and the First World War, Auckland 2007: Exisle Publishing.
- Francis, Andrew: 'To be truly British we must be anti-German'. New Zealand, enemy aliens, and the Great War experience, 1914-1919, Oxford; New York 2012: Peter Lang.
- Harper, Glyn: Dark journey. Three key New Zealand battles of the Western front, Auckland 2007: HarperCollinsPublishers.
- Loveridge, Steven: Calls to arms. New Zealand society and commitment to the Great War, Wellington 2014: Victoria University Press.
- McGibbon, Ian C.: The path to Gallipoli. Defending New Zealand, 1840-1915, Wellington 1991: GP Books.
- McGibbon, Ian C. (ed.): The Oxford companion to New Zealand military history, Auckland; New York 2000: Oxford University Press.
- Pugsley, Christopher: Gallipoli. The New Zealand story, Auckland 1984: Hodder and Stoughton.
- Pugsley, Christopher: On the fringe of hell. New Zealanders and military discipline in the First World War, Auckland 1991: Hodder & Stoughton.