Regions Ottoman Empire

Survey Articles (Regional)

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • During the Great War, the Ottoman Empire fought on several major and minor fronts, both in the Middle East and in the Balkans. Although initially seen as a military liability by its allies and a weak … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • In 1914 Muhammad Kurd ‘Ali was Damascus’ most prominent journalist, owner and editor of the ''al-Muqtabas ''publications, leading Francophone intellectual and prolific author. Adhering to the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Perhaps 30 percent of the World War I Ottoman officer corps hailed from Arab regions. Such people had often been the recipients of fully subsidized, comprehensive state education. Ex-officers figured … READ MORE

    Entry
  • There were a number of Arab intellectuals who actively cooperated with the Entente and Central Powers during the Great War through their actions, writings and speeches. The entry focuses on the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After service in the Balkans and in Libya, Süleyman Askerî was chosen by Enver Pasha to lead the “Special Organization” before World War I. Sent to Iraq to organize the defense against the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Howard Sweetser Bliss was the President of the Syrian Protestant College (SPC) during the war. His congenial relationship with Jamal Pasha helped to ensure the security of the college and American … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Cemal Paşa belonged to the top leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He served as wartime minister of the navy and autocratic … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After leading the coup that brought the Committee of Union and Progress to power, Enver was appointed chief of staff and war minister. Convinced of a German victory, he decided to join World War One. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Faysal ibn Husayn commanded the Northern Army of the Arab Revolt and was raised to the throne of Syria in October 1918. The French invasion drove him from Damascus in April 1921. Made king of Iraq … READ MORE

    Entry
  • İsmail Hakkı was an experienced civil servant. He collected and published detailed statistics on the population, economic activities, education, natural resources and means of transportation in his … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article is about the career of Heinrich Leonhard Emanuel von Hoff under the Ottoman state. As a German military officer, he played an active role in the local branch of Stuttgart’s German … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A champion of “peaceful imperialism” before the war, Humann served as an ''éminence grise'' in Turkish-German relations, helping to establish the alliance and deterring criticism of genocide. He … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Husayn ibn Ali launched the Arab Revolt in alliance with Great Britain. His relations with his European allies remained uneasy and deteriorated further when a unified Arab state under his rule failed … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence mapped out with studied ambiguity the terms of the wartime alliance between Great Britain and Hashemites that underpinned the Great Arab Revolt (July 1916-October … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912) took place mainly in Ottoman Libya following Italy’s invasion, not taking into consideration the fierce Ottoman and indigenous … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The terms "martyrs" and "separatists" refer to the decentralist Arabists of Syria who were executed by Cemal Pasha during World War I as a result of their alleged plot to separate the Syrian land … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The real naval war in the Mediterranean turned out to be a struggle against German and Austrian submarines and not a classic battle between major … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Near East Relief was formed in 1915 to address the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of the Armenian genocide. By the end of the war, the organization had transformed into a vast aid campaign … READ MORE

    Entry
  • War, massacres, displacement, famine and economic crisis left over 100,000 children orphaned across the Ottoman Empire during WWI. Though most orphans were left to fend for themselves, as their … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A talented administrator but a mediocre general, Cavit Pasha served in various parts of the empire, including commander of Iraq during the first year of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Esat Pasha played a key role during the Gallipoli campaign and achieved renown as a trainer, military intellectual and the defender of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A first father of modern Turkey before Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the driving force of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) during the war, Talat organized the removal of Armenian and other … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The renowned archaeologist Friedrich Sarre used his local knowledge to support the German-Ottoman war effort in western Persia in various leading functions. After the war, he sheltered the fugitive … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In dividing the Fertile Crescent into British and French spheres, the wartime Sykes-Picot Agreement laid the foundation of the colonial division of the region ratified at the St. Remo (1920) and … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

  • In early 1915 the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire decided to deport hundreds of thousands of Armenians and Assyrians from their homes into distant parts of the Empire, eventually into the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • New weapons produced during the Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s heightened existing tensions among European nations as countries strove to outpace their enemies technologically. This … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The term "atrocity" describes an act of violence condemned by contemporaries as a breach of morality or the laws of war. "Atrocities" are culturally constructed; by 1914, an international discourse … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article deals with civilian morale during the First World War. Between 1915 and 1918, governments “discovered” the importance of civilian morale and developed vast systems of surveillance to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War saw the colonial empires of France and Britain mobilised to aid European and imperial war efforts. This mobilisation and the difficulties of demobilisation placed considerable … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article discusses the role of the media in the complex international process leading to the First World War with a focus on the press of the great powers. Recent research has shown that the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The extra-European theatres of World War I have received far less scholarly attention than the war in Europe. This state of affairs is hardly surprising given the sheer magnitude of the Western Front … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage (France) to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article focuses on the extent to which imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. The first part describes the emergence of specific imperialist cultures and attitudes in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article examines international efforts to curb states’ war-making prerogatives in the second half of the “long” 19th century. It captures new humanitarian sentiments circulating … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of the progress of nationalism and the national idea starting with its origins as a mass political programme during the French Revolution and tracing its passage up to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • All of the great belligerent states of World War I were naval powers and engaged in operations around the globe. While the course of the war did not unfold as predicted by naval officials, it did … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War marked the shift from a 19th century, relatively ''ad hoc'' management of prisoners of war, to the 20th century’s sophisticated prisoner of war camp … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores the policies adopted and implemented against enemy property from the beginning of the Great War to the signing of the peace treaties in Europe. Breaking a long-standing … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article addresses the scale of wartime population displacement in continental Europe, the relief efforts made on behalf of refugees, their impact on host communities, and the cultural … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article surveys the various movements toward social, national, and political revolution that emerged during and in the wake of World War I. The Russian revolutions of 1917 serve as the first … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article examines the changing dynamics of national tensions in the Habsburg, Romanov, and Ottoman empires during three distinct phases of the Great War. The outbreak and early months of the war … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Reflecting current historiography, this article focuses primarily on Christian churches centered in the main European theater of the Great War, including more global interactions with the other … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • October 1918 witnessed the collapse of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies, both greatly affected by war-weariness and starvation. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy lost any remaining loyalty from its … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of peacemaking after the First World War from the armistices of 1918 until 1923. It considers the outcomes of the five Parisian treaties (Versailles, Saint-Germain and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Great War witnessed mass armies battling with modern, quick-firing weapons systems and using consumables of all kinds - ammunition, food, water, soldiers - at rates that had not been seen before. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Cities — with their comparatively large and dense but also vulnerable populations — went from being theaters of mass mobilization in favor of the political status quo to being sites of domestic … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Balkan Wars erupted in South Eastern Europe in October 1912. Fighting continued intermittently in the region until July 1914. As the First World War expanded into much of Europe, fighting … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Military sources provide the primary statistics of war losses and casualties during World War I. In order to review and eventually revise their figures, one must understand how military statistics … READ MORE

    Thematic

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • During the Great War, the Ottoman Empire fought on several major and minor fronts, both in the Middle East and in the Balkans. Although initially seen as a military liability by its allies and a weak … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • In 1914 Muhammad Kurd ‘Ali was Damascus’ most prominent journalist, owner and editor of the ''al-Muqtabas ''publications, leading Francophone intellectual and prolific author. Adhering to the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Perhaps 30 percent of the World War I Ottoman officer corps hailed from Arab regions. Such people had often been the recipients of fully subsidized, comprehensive state education. Ex-officers figured … READ MORE

    Entry
  • There were a number of Arab intellectuals who actively cooperated with the Entente and Central Powers during the Great War through their actions, writings and speeches. The entry focuses on the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After service in the Balkans and in Libya, Süleyman Askerî was chosen by Enver Pasha to lead the “Special Organization” before World War I. Sent to Iraq to organize the defense against the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Howard Sweetser Bliss was the President of the Syrian Protestant College (SPC) during the war. His congenial relationship with Jamal Pasha helped to ensure the security of the college and American … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Cemal Paşa belonged to the top leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He served as wartime minister of the navy and autocratic … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After leading the coup that brought the Committee of Union and Progress to power, Enver was appointed chief of staff and war minister. Convinced of a German victory, he decided to join World War One. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Faysal ibn Husayn commanded the Northern Army of the Arab Revolt and was raised to the throne of Syria in October 1918. The French invasion drove him from Damascus in April 1921. Made king of Iraq … READ MORE

    Entry
  • İsmail Hakkı was an experienced civil servant. He collected and published detailed statistics on the population, economic activities, education, natural resources and means of transportation in his … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article is about the career of Heinrich Leonhard Emanuel von Hoff under the Ottoman state. As a German military officer, he played an active role in the local branch of Stuttgart’s German … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A champion of “peaceful imperialism” before the war, Humann served as an ''éminence grise'' in Turkish-German relations, helping to establish the alliance and deterring criticism of genocide. He … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Husayn ibn Ali launched the Arab Revolt in alliance with Great Britain. His relations with his European allies remained uneasy and deteriorated further when a unified Arab state under his rule failed … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence mapped out with studied ambiguity the terms of the wartime alliance between Great Britain and Hashemites that underpinned the Great Arab Revolt (July 1916-October … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912) took place mainly in Ottoman Libya following Italy’s invasion, not taking into consideration the fierce Ottoman and indigenous … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The terms "martyrs" and "separatists" refer to the decentralist Arabists of Syria who were executed by Cemal Pasha during World War I as a result of their alleged plot to separate the Syrian land … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The real naval war in the Mediterranean turned out to be a struggle against German and Austrian submarines and not a classic battle between major … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Near East Relief was formed in 1915 to address the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of the Armenian genocide. By the end of the war, the organization had transformed into a vast aid campaign … READ MORE

    Entry
  • War, massacres, displacement, famine and economic crisis left over 100,000 children orphaned across the Ottoman Empire during WWI. Though most orphans were left to fend for themselves, as their … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A talented administrator but a mediocre general, Cavit Pasha served in various parts of the empire, including commander of Iraq during the first year of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Esat Pasha played a key role during the Gallipoli campaign and achieved renown as a trainer, military intellectual and the defender of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A first father of modern Turkey before Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the driving force of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) during the war, Talat organized the removal of Armenian and other … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The renowned archaeologist Friedrich Sarre used his local knowledge to support the German-Ottoman war effort in western Persia in various leading functions. After the war, he sheltered the fugitive … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In dividing the Fertile Crescent into British and French spheres, the wartime Sykes-Picot Agreement laid the foundation of the colonial division of the region ratified at the St. Remo (1920) and … READ MORE

    Entry