Regions North America

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

See also

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • The American debate over neutrality ended when Woodrow Wilson decided in April 1917 that German aggression on the high seas threatened US national security. From 1917-18 the Wilson administration … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Jane Addams co-founded Hull House, the most famous of America’s 400 social settlements. Addams led the settlement movement and successfully championed many Progressive-era reforms. She received the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A lawyer, Progressive, and pacifist, Newton Baker was U.S. Secretary of War during World War I. He oversaw a massive mobilization that relied on a sweeping draft law and cooperation between … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Invented in France in 1860, barbed wire was further developed in the United States, where it was used to restrict cattle and secure territory. Acquiring far more menacing qualities in the First World … READ MORE

    Entry
  • John Lewis Barkley grew up in west-central Missouri, where he became a skilled outdoorsman. During the First World War, he served in an intelligence platoon in the 3rd Division of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the beginning of World War I, Bernard Baruch was one of the most famous Wall Street traders in the nation. During World War I, he served as President Wilson’s Advisory Commission to the Council … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Williams Jennings Bryan was a powerful Democratic politician, from his emergence on the American political scene in the 1890s to his death in 1925. A three-time Democratic nominee for president, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Robert Lee Bullard, born in Alabama and educated at West Point, served in the U.S. Army from 1885–1925. He was in the Geronimo Campaign, the Philippines, Cuba, and on the Mexican border, and he … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the First World War, the Bureau of Investigation, a division of the U.S. Department of Justice, became a leading federal agency for the suppression of dissent. Bureau agents collected … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The basic tactical question for all military powers prior to 1914 was how to approach and attack an enemy who was directing massive fire against the attacker and who was making use of natural or … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During World War I, many conscription age-men sought exemptions from combat duty for reasons of conscience. Religious beliefs formed the large majority of objections, but other reasons included … READ MORE

    Entry
  • George Creel is most famous as Chairman of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) in the United States during the First World War. Under his leadership, the CPI pioneered public relations and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Dada, a transnational movement of artists, was founded in Zurich in 1916. It disappeared in 1924, after a sham trial against Maurice Barrès in 1921. Far from pacifism, Dada declared war against war. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Josephus Daniels was United States secretary of the Navy from 1913–1921. He democratized, expanded, and modernized the United States Navy, preparing it for service in the First World War. During … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a socialist, Eugene Debs unsuccessfully ran for president four times. He served two prison sentences: the first due to his role in the Pullman Strike in 1894, and the second after being indicted … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This is the first in what it is hoped will become a series of discussion forums hosted by ''1914-1918-online''. In this discussion forum, General Editor Peter Gatrell invited contributions that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A New York National Guard officer, attorney, and Medal of Honor recipient, William J. Donovan took his passion for accomplishing the mission into the trenches. As World War II began, he became the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Hugh Drum played an integral role planning the deployment of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) to France in 1917-18. He went on to become the primary staff officer responsible for developing … READ MORE

    Entry
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, sociologist, historian, and socialist, promoted African American advancement and expected the war to improve the position of nonwhite minorities in the United States and globally. He … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A division within the Committee on Public Information (CPI), the Ford Division, created in the spring of 1917, was responsible for creating and distributing “scholarly” propaganda to schools and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Raymond Blaine Fosdick served as the Chairman for the Commission on Training Camp Activities for the United States Army during its involvement in the First World War. In this position, he monitored … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Fourteen Points were U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s post World War I blueprint to end territorial disputes in Europe, promote international commerce, and make the world safe for democracy. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • “Freedom of the seas” was the early 20th century idea that the world’s oceans served as a global commons for carrying cargo and facilitating commerce. As both a communal property and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Harry Garfield worked in a number of civic positions during his life. When the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow Wilson asked him to oversee the Fuel Administration. As the leader … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Lindley Garrison was a prominent lawyer and politician from New Jersey who rose to the rank of vice chancellor of the state in the early 1910s. Because of his prominence, Woodrow Wilson selected him … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Thomas Watt Gregory served as Attorney General of the United States during World War I. He played a key role in developing the Espionage and Sedition Acts to suppress dissent during World War I and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Harbord, James Guthrie

    By J. Michael Miller

    Lt. General James G. Harbord was an influential American army officer. He served as Chief of Staff of the American Expeditionary Force between 1917 and 1918, the commander of the 4th … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ernest Hemingway was an American who served as a Red Cross ambulance lieutenant in Italy in 1918. He was severely wounded after spending only a few weeks at the front. He later became one of the most … READ MORE

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  • After working first as a lawyer and legal scholar, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. accepted positions on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts and the United States Supreme Court. As a Supreme Court … READ MORE

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  • Herbert Hoover obtained political prominence during World War I through his roles as chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Belgium (CRB) and the U.S. Food Administration. Following the war, … READ MORE

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  • Edward House was an advisor to President Woodrow Wilson. He aided Wilson in diplomatic matters and in crafting the Fourteen Points that became the framework for the League of … READ MORE

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  • An international banking and brokerage house, J. P. Morgan & Company came to world prominence under the leadership of the financier John Pierpont Morgan and included firms in London, Paris, and New … READ MORE

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  • The First World War precipitated a revolution in infantry tactics that changed the course of warfare. Armies adapted to modern industrialized war along a four-year learning curve, moving from … READ MORE

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  • Robert Lansing served as U.S. Secretary of State from June 1915 until February 1920. A career lawyer, Lansing was a leading proponent of “benevolent neutrality” in the years before the United … READ MORE

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  • Major General John Archer Lejeune was the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps. During World War I, he was initially assigned to command the 4th Brigade (Marines) of the US Army 2nd Infantry Division. … READ MORE

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  • Hunter Liggett was a general in the U.S. Army. He commanded the Forty-First Infantry Division, the I Corps, and the United States First Army. He led the I Corps at Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican senator from Massachusetts. Close friend to Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge supported imperialist endeavors and favored military preparedness following the outbreak of … READ MORE

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  • On 7 May 1915, a German U-boat fired a torpedo into the HMS Lusitania, sinking her off the coast of Ireland. While the sinking was not a direct cause of American entry into the war, it frayed … READ MORE

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  • General Douglas MacArthur was a career Army officer and an American military leader during World War I. During the war, he rose to division commander and was cited for battlefield bravery. MacArthur … READ MORE

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  • Between 1914 and 1918, the machine gun played an ever-increasing role on the battlefield. Today, even though artillery was responsible for the majority of deaths, the machine gun is the weapon most … READ MORE

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  • General Peyton C. March developed the role and prominence of the relatively new position of U.S. Army Chief of Staff. March rivaled General of the Armies John J. Pershing in importance and influence … READ MORE

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  • William G. McAdoo was an American politician and businessman. During World War I, he served as Secretary of the Treasury and director of the US Railroad Administration. In these positions he was the … READ MORE

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  • The Military Board of Allied Supply, formed in mid-1918, attempted to centralize oversight of allied lines of communication in Europe and promote more efficient use of their limited … READ MORE

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  • In World War I, Brigadier General William “Billy” Mitchell of the American Expeditionary Forces, led the largest armada of airplanes ever assembled to attack the Germans during the Saint-Mihiel … READ MORE

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  • The First World War fundamentally changed the course of 20th century music. The era of late Romanticism, Symbolism and Expressionism had ended, the music culture of the European high … READ MORE

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  • Dennis E. Nolan was the chief intelligence officer for the American Expeditionary Forces in France under General John J. Pershing. Starting as the only intelligence officer on Pershing’s staff, … READ MORE

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  • The Palmer Raids were efforts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport suspected leftists and anarchists between November 1919 and January 1920. In response to the growing fear … READ MORE

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  • George Smith Patton was an American military leader. He began his career as a cavalry officer and later helped introduce tanks into the American army. His importance to the First World War was the … READ MORE

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  • Alice Paul was an American suffragist and political rights activist. Jailed repeatedly for her activities running up to and during World War I, her work in the United States led to the passing of the … READ MORE

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  • John J. Pershing led all American forces during World War I. He emphasized staff work and offensive operations and fought successfully to keep all U.S. forces under his control. Although success … READ MORE

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  • In World War I, the mobility of troops was of major strategic importance. New transportation means like trucks, as well as war planes, submarines and tanks, which began to revolutionize warfare … READ MORE

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  • Prostitution was considered among the most important societal problems facing civilian-military authorities in belligerent countries during World War I. Despite growing military control of the … READ MORE

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  • Black Americans served in the First World War, fighting for democracy both abroad and at home. They sought combat and leadership positions, both of which they were generally denied. Most African … READ MORE

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  • One of the central problems nations faced during the war was procuring necessary foodstuffs for military use while ensuring that the civilian population remained adequately fed. The United States … READ MORE

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  • The Red Scare was a period of heightened fear of radicalism in the United States after World War I. Labor unrest, the growth of bolshevism internationally, and a series of bombings triggered a number … READ MORE

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  • America’s “ace of aces,” Eddie Rickenbacker received the Distinguished Service Medal, nine Distinguished Service Crosses, and five Croix de Guerres for his service in the skies over the Western … READ MORE

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  • The rifle was by far the most common weapon used in the world war. When the major powers entered the conflict, they possessed around 11 million rifles. During the war, they either manufactured or … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, motor vehicles took on a key role as transport facilities for troops and equipment. They needed tires made of rubber, which as a result became a raw material of strategic … READ MORE

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  • The Selective Service Act of 1917 was the official name of the military draft signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson following the United States’ entry into World War I. It authorized the … READ MORE

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  • Based in Paris, the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) newspaper, ''Stars and Stripes,'' debuted on 8 February 1918 and ran for seventy-one weeks. The AEF commander, General John J. Pershing, … READ MORE

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  • This article summarises the main wartime stereotypes that defined war propaganda in Germany, France, Great Britain, the USA and Russia. It focuses less on particular details of each national enemy … READ MORE

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  • U.S. Army Chief of Staff General Charles P. Summerall enjoyed a distinguished military career that spanned nearly forty years. During World War I he commanded several American units and established a … READ MORE

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  • The Supreme War Council was an Allied administrative organisation, created by the Entente governments in November 1917 to coordinate their military action. Its most significant achievement was to … READ MORE

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  • In May 1916, the German government issued a pledge to the United States that the Imperial navy would not attack passenger ships and would further allow the crew of merchant ships which carried war … READ MORE

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  • World War I introduced new technologies and doctrine in a quest to overcome the tactical stalemate of the trenches. The first tanks had great potential that would be capitalized upon during the next … READ MORE

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  • Whether on the Western or Eastern Front, by German, French, British, Canadian, American and other armies, shows were regularly organized on the front lines and at base camps during the Great War. … READ MORE

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  • In 1918, producer Robert Goldstein was convicted and imprisoned under the Espionage Act of 1917 for screening ''The Spirit of ’76'', a movie about the American Revolution that authorities deemed … READ MORE

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  • "Trench Art" is a genre of folk art comprised of items created in wartime, or from war materiel. It may be made by servicemen and women or by civilians, and is particularly associated with the First … READ MORE

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  • A race riot is a mob-related domestic disturbance in which specific racial groups are targeted for violence. The United States experienced a significant increase in race riots during and after World … READ MORE

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  • The governments of all belligerent countries issued special loans to finance their expenditure after the war began. To mobilize the financial resources of their peoples required concerted war bonds … READ MORE

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  • Like the other warring nations, the United States had to organize its industries in support of its military effort. The War Industries Board was designed to provide the necessary coordination and … READ MORE

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  • Brand Whitlock served as the U.S. minister and ambassador to Belgium from 1914–1921. During the war, Whitlock facilitated the humanitarian activities of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, which … READ MORE

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  • Lieutenant Colonel Charles Whittlesey served in a unit of the U. S. Army’s 77th Division known as the “Lost Battalion” as it was trapped by German forces during the Meuse-Argonne … READ MORE

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  • Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the twenty-eighth president of the United States (1913-1921). Wilson unsuccessfully attempted to bring the belligerents to the negotiating table, but in 1917 reluctantly … READ MORE

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  • Wireless telegraphy became an integral part of warfare on the ground, in the air, and at sea by 1918. Wireless helped to make the war global, though historians still debate its impact on the course … READ MORE

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See also

  • Soldiers’ attitudes towards the Great War are a controversial issue, as they prove difficult to assess and raise complex methodological questions. They evolved during the course of the conflict, … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article presents cartoonists as patriotic propagandists mobilizing their pens and brushes for the national cause during the war. It analyses their techniques for arousing emotions such as … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Mass conscription recast relationships in families, raised minors’ potential as wage earners, and decreased supervision over them. War ravaged the health of young people in Central Europe while … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By 1914 the leading states had succumbed to varying degrees of militarism, subordinating other interests to those of the armed forces, yet all were governed by regimes in which the ultimate authority … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article deals with civilian morale during the First World War. Between 1915 and 1918, governments “discovered” the importance of civilian morale and developed vast systems of surveillance to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article discusses the role of the media in the complex international process leading to the First World War with a focus on the press of the great powers. Recent research has shown that the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The idea that World War I was a watershed in gender relations has pervaded both contemporary narratives and historiography. In contrast to earlier studies, research now tends to give a more nuanced … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article examines the First World War’s ecological impact and shows that protracted environmental transformations resulted more from expanded industrial modes of production than heavy combat. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The internment of enemy aliens in the First World War was a global phenomenon. Camps holding civilian as well as military prisoners could be found on every continent, including in nation-states and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the entire war, warring powers used the “secret war” to try to break the balance of the battlefield. Generally created in the previous few decades, intelligence and security services saw … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War played a significant role in the evolution of film both as a medium for reporting war and as a tool for the propagandist manipulation of public opinion to support the war effort. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage (France) to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article discusses the close relationships between national governments, advertising trades and print media industries and assesses their significance for liberal democracy and national identity … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article focuses on the extent to which imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. The first part describes the emergence of specific imperialist cultures and attitudes in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By examining the origins, pathways, demographic impact and consequences for the public, the medical profession and governments, of the so-called “Spanish” influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, this … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article examines international efforts to curb states’ war-making prerogatives in the second half of the “long” 19th century. It captures new humanitarian sentiments circulating … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article seeks to present an overview of First World War literature across many of the combatant nations from the outbreak of the conflict up to the beginning of the Second World War. Taking a … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • What role do representations of the First World War play in media that reach a wide audience beyond the circle of experts? The following contribution focuses on this important question. Given the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • There is an ongoing debate among historians whether the First World War did in fact lead to drastic changes in migration and migration policies. The war certainly resulted in numerous severe … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay offers a comparative survey of the practice of military justice among several of the key belligerent powers. Accused soldiers enjoyed little in the way of legal protection, and punishment … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War created disfigured and mutilated bodies on a grand scale. Never before had the bodies of soldiers been so devastated by a conflict. Developments in established weapons such as … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • All of the great belligerent states of World War I were naval powers and engaged in operations around the globe. While the course of the war did not unfold as predicted by naval officials, it did … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Great War was never considered the “war to end all wars” by the states and armed forces in conflict. The war’s legacies were processed in a wide variety of ways depending on forms of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • In August 1914, a targeted and systematic manipulation of opinion by the media, intellectuals and authorities started. Atrocities were attributed to the enemies that arose from preformed images or … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The idea of peace in total war may seem irrelevant, but pacifism, or peace activism, did exist during the First World War. A seemingly robust European peace movement existed before 1914, but it … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This paper examines major peace initiatives during World War I. It describes efforts by the chief European belligerents to split apart enemy coalitions with separate peace settlements as well … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War represents a watershed in the history of war photography. It was the first conflict to be photographed in detail by all the participants and the first in which photography was … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War caused unprecedented disruption to societies across the globe, from Western and (especially) Central and Eastern Europe to East Africa. While many survivors could celebrate an end … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Great War gave new impulses to the further development of public welfare systems which had emerged in previous decades. The desire for the social protection of the population and the restoration … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article summarizes and compares the principal arguments and strategies of propaganda at the home front, the military front, as well as in neutral and enemy countries. These included the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Propaganda played an important part in the politics of the war, but was only successful as part of wider political and military strategies. For each belligerent, the most effective and important … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores the policies adopted and implemented against enemy property from the beginning of the Great War to the signing of the peace treaties in Europe. Breaking a long-standing … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Raw materials were vital during the First World War. Due to the armaments production, the belligerents’ needs increased significantly, while the available resources fell. Each country intended both … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • From the cradle to the grave, popular religion formed a necessary and vital, if analytically messy, part of the human experience of the Great War. The war had the potential to atomize and alienate … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The paper describes the impact of war on peasantry and its mobilisation in the war effort. While observers portrayed the countryside as rich and callous towards urban shortages or waging war, the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The military service of teachers and the mobilization of schoolchildren for voluntary war work deeply disrupted schooling, especially in Central Europe. In continental Europe, war infused curricula … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Wartime science and technology developed in the context of the Second Industrial Revolution, with far-reaching consequences for national and international scientific institutions and social … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Allied capacity at sea to sustain global transport and supply determined their ability to prevail in the First World War. The deployment of convoys to triumph over submarine warfare was an important … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article provides an international overview of the history of sexuality in the Great War, including (1) the venereal disease epidemic, prostitution, and expanding state surveillance of sexuality; … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • A vast array of initiatives designed to counteract the destructiveness of the First World War was developed by states and societies across the world. Protecting the bodies and minds of soldiers from … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Reflecting current historiography, this article focuses primarily on Christian churches centered in the main European theater of the Great War, including more global interactions with the other … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay examines how the "everyday" functions in war, not only for those on the home fronts, but for those in combat roles and for those living between the lines. Five important qualities, among … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Regardless of whether it was based on volunteer enlistment or conscription, mass mobilization in all of the countries at war between 1914 and 1918 completely upended the pre-war relationships that … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of peacemaking after the First World War from the armistices of 1918 until 1923. It considers the outcomes of the five Parisian treaties (Versailles, Saint-Germain and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay traces belligerent policies toward venereal disease (VD) on the fighting and home fronts in Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, and later, the United States. VD rates … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Veterans’ associations formed an influential social movement during the interwar period. They provided the platform for former soldiers to commemorate the war and their fallen comrades and to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This piece explores the visualisation of violence for home front audiences and shows that violence was often hinted at very strongly, but the actual act was avoided. All home front audiences were … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Despite what some believe, there is still a lot to say and learn about the First World War, particularly with regard to war aims. A lot of focus is currently placed on the cultural, social and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • At its outbreak, newspapers in the Allied and neutral democracies hoped to present vivid descriptions of the First World War. They were soon frustrated. Censorship obstructed the adventurous style of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Static “trench warfare” belied a dynamic transformation in warfare between 1914 and 1918. Every army grappled with the same issues: how to end a strategic stalemate occasioned by their ability to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • In nations where literacy was well-established by 1914, letter-writing was critical to the emotional well-being of soldiers and their families. Men in uniform often circumvented the censors and sent … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Military sources provide the primary statistics of war losses and casualties during World War I. In order to review and eventually revise their figures, one must understand how military statistics … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • It may surprise us to learn that some sectors of the European public were in favour of the war in 1914. The impact of modern weapons was not well understood and many people in the government, … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores women’s economic, social, and political responses to the First World War. It addresses their mobilization including their engagement with the war effort as well as their … READ MORE

    Thematic

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • The American debate over neutrality ended when Woodrow Wilson decided in April 1917 that German aggression on the high seas threatened US national security. From 1917-18 the Wilson administration … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • Jane Addams co-founded Hull House, the most famous of America’s 400 social settlements. Addams led the settlement movement and successfully championed many Progressive-era reforms. She received the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A lawyer, Progressive, and pacifist, Newton Baker was U.S. Secretary of War during World War I. He oversaw a massive mobilization that relied on a sweeping draft law and cooperation between … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Invented in France in 1860, barbed wire was further developed in the United States, where it was used to restrict cattle and secure territory. Acquiring far more menacing qualities in the First World … READ MORE

    Entry
  • John Lewis Barkley grew up in west-central Missouri, where he became a skilled outdoorsman. During the First World War, he served in an intelligence platoon in the 3rd Division of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the beginning of World War I, Bernard Baruch was one of the most famous Wall Street traders in the nation. During World War I, he served as President Wilson’s Advisory Commission to the Council … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Williams Jennings Bryan was a powerful Democratic politician, from his emergence on the American political scene in the 1890s to his death in 1925. A three-time Democratic nominee for president, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Robert Lee Bullard, born in Alabama and educated at West Point, served in the U.S. Army from 1885–1925. He was in the Geronimo Campaign, the Philippines, Cuba, and on the Mexican border, and he … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the First World War, the Bureau of Investigation, a division of the U.S. Department of Justice, became a leading federal agency for the suppression of dissent. Bureau agents collected … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The basic tactical question for all military powers prior to 1914 was how to approach and attack an enemy who was directing massive fire against the attacker and who was making use of natural or … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During World War I, many conscription age-men sought exemptions from combat duty for reasons of conscience. Religious beliefs formed the large majority of objections, but other reasons included … READ MORE

    Entry
  • George Creel is most famous as Chairman of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) in the United States during the First World War. Under his leadership, the CPI pioneered public relations and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Dada, a transnational movement of artists, was founded in Zurich in 1916. It disappeared in 1924, after a sham trial against Maurice Barrès in 1921. Far from pacifism, Dada declared war against war. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Josephus Daniels was United States secretary of the Navy from 1913–1921. He democratized, expanded, and modernized the United States Navy, preparing it for service in the First World War. During … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a socialist, Eugene Debs unsuccessfully ran for president four times. He served two prison sentences: the first due to his role in the Pullman Strike in 1894, and the second after being indicted … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This is the first in what it is hoped will become a series of discussion forums hosted by ''1914-1918-online''. In this discussion forum, General Editor Peter Gatrell invited contributions that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A New York National Guard officer, attorney, and Medal of Honor recipient, William J. Donovan took his passion for accomplishing the mission into the trenches. As World War II began, he became the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Hugh Drum played an integral role planning the deployment of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) to France in 1917-18. He went on to become the primary staff officer responsible for developing … READ MORE

    Entry
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, sociologist, historian, and socialist, promoted African American advancement and expected the war to improve the position of nonwhite minorities in the United States and globally. He … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A division within the Committee on Public Information (CPI), the Ford Division, created in the spring of 1917, was responsible for creating and distributing “scholarly” propaganda to schools and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Raymond Blaine Fosdick served as the Chairman for the Commission on Training Camp Activities for the United States Army during its involvement in the First World War. In this position, he monitored … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Fourteen Points were U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s post World War I blueprint to end territorial disputes in Europe, promote international commerce, and make the world safe for democracy. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • “Freedom of the seas” was the early 20th century idea that the world’s oceans served as a global commons for carrying cargo and facilitating commerce. As both a communal property and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Harry Garfield worked in a number of civic positions during his life. When the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow Wilson asked him to oversee the Fuel Administration. As the leader … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Lindley Garrison was a prominent lawyer and politician from New Jersey who rose to the rank of vice chancellor of the state in the early 1910s. Because of his prominence, Woodrow Wilson selected him … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Thomas Watt Gregory served as Attorney General of the United States during World War I. He played a key role in developing the Espionage and Sedition Acts to suppress dissent during World War I and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Harbord, James Guthrie

    By J. Michael Miller

    Lt. General James G. Harbord was an influential American army officer. He served as Chief of Staff of the American Expeditionary Force between 1917 and 1918, the commander of the 4th … READ MORE

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  • Ernest Hemingway was an American who served as a Red Cross ambulance lieutenant in Italy in 1918. He was severely wounded after spending only a few weeks at the front. He later became one of the most … READ MORE

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  • After working first as a lawyer and legal scholar, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. accepted positions on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts and the United States Supreme Court. As a Supreme Court … READ MORE

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  • Herbert Hoover obtained political prominence during World War I through his roles as chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Belgium (CRB) and the U.S. Food Administration. Following the war, … READ MORE

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  • Edward House was an advisor to President Woodrow Wilson. He aided Wilson in diplomatic matters and in crafting the Fourteen Points that became the framework for the League of … READ MORE

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  • An international banking and brokerage house, J. P. Morgan & Company came to world prominence under the leadership of the financier John Pierpont Morgan and included firms in London, Paris, and New … READ MORE

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  • The First World War precipitated a revolution in infantry tactics that changed the course of warfare. Armies adapted to modern industrialized war along a four-year learning curve, moving from … READ MORE

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  • Robert Lansing served as U.S. Secretary of State from June 1915 until February 1920. A career lawyer, Lansing was a leading proponent of “benevolent neutrality” in the years before the United … READ MORE

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  • Major General John Archer Lejeune was the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps. During World War I, he was initially assigned to command the 4th Brigade (Marines) of the US Army 2nd Infantry Division. … READ MORE

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  • Hunter Liggett was a general in the U.S. Army. He commanded the Forty-First Infantry Division, the I Corps, and the United States First Army. He led the I Corps at Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and in … READ MORE

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  • Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican senator from Massachusetts. Close friend to Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge supported imperialist endeavors and favored military preparedness following the outbreak of … READ MORE

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  • On 7 May 1915, a German U-boat fired a torpedo into the HMS Lusitania, sinking her off the coast of Ireland. While the sinking was not a direct cause of American entry into the war, it frayed … READ MORE

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  • General Douglas MacArthur was a career Army officer and an American military leader during World War I. During the war, he rose to division commander and was cited for battlefield bravery. MacArthur … READ MORE

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  • Between 1914 and 1918, the machine gun played an ever-increasing role on the battlefield. Today, even though artillery was responsible for the majority of deaths, the machine gun is the weapon most … READ MORE

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  • General Peyton C. March developed the role and prominence of the relatively new position of U.S. Army Chief of Staff. March rivaled General of the Armies John J. Pershing in importance and influence … READ MORE

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  • William G. McAdoo was an American politician and businessman. During World War I, he served as Secretary of the Treasury and director of the US Railroad Administration. In these positions he was the … READ MORE

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  • The Military Board of Allied Supply, formed in mid-1918, attempted to centralize oversight of allied lines of communication in Europe and promote more efficient use of their limited … READ MORE

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  • In World War I, Brigadier General William “Billy” Mitchell of the American Expeditionary Forces, led the largest armada of airplanes ever assembled to attack the Germans during the Saint-Mihiel … READ MORE

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  • The First World War fundamentally changed the course of 20th century music. The era of late Romanticism, Symbolism and Expressionism had ended, the music culture of the European high … READ MORE

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  • Dennis E. Nolan was the chief intelligence officer for the American Expeditionary Forces in France under General John J. Pershing. Starting as the only intelligence officer on Pershing’s staff, … READ MORE

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  • The Palmer Raids were efforts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport suspected leftists and anarchists between November 1919 and January 1920. In response to the growing fear … READ MORE

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  • George Smith Patton was an American military leader. He began his career as a cavalry officer and later helped introduce tanks into the American army. His importance to the First World War was the … READ MORE

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  • Alice Paul was an American suffragist and political rights activist. Jailed repeatedly for her activities running up to and during World War I, her work in the United States led to the passing of the … READ MORE

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  • John J. Pershing led all American forces during World War I. He emphasized staff work and offensive operations and fought successfully to keep all U.S. forces under his control. Although success … READ MORE

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  • In World War I, the mobility of troops was of major strategic importance. New transportation means like trucks, as well as war planes, submarines and tanks, which began to revolutionize warfare … READ MORE

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  • Prostitution was considered among the most important societal problems facing civilian-military authorities in belligerent countries during World War I. Despite growing military control of the … READ MORE

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  • Black Americans served in the First World War, fighting for democracy both abroad and at home. They sought combat and leadership positions, both of which they were generally denied. Most African … READ MORE

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  • One of the central problems nations faced during the war was procuring necessary foodstuffs for military use while ensuring that the civilian population remained adequately fed. The United States … READ MORE

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  • The Red Scare was a period of heightened fear of radicalism in the United States after World War I. Labor unrest, the growth of bolshevism internationally, and a series of bombings triggered a number … READ MORE

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  • America’s “ace of aces,” Eddie Rickenbacker received the Distinguished Service Medal, nine Distinguished Service Crosses, and five Croix de Guerres for his service in the skies over the Western … READ MORE

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  • The rifle was by far the most common weapon used in the world war. When the major powers entered the conflict, they possessed around 11 million rifles. During the war, they either manufactured or … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, motor vehicles took on a key role as transport facilities for troops and equipment. They needed tires made of rubber, which as a result became a raw material of strategic … READ MORE

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  • The Selective Service Act of 1917 was the official name of the military draft signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson following the United States’ entry into World War I. It authorized the … READ MORE

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  • Based in Paris, the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) newspaper, ''Stars and Stripes,'' debuted on 8 February 1918 and ran for seventy-one weeks. The AEF commander, General John J. Pershing, … READ MORE

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  • This article summarises the main wartime stereotypes that defined war propaganda in Germany, France, Great Britain, the USA and Russia. It focuses less on particular details of each national enemy … READ MORE

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  • U.S. Army Chief of Staff General Charles P. Summerall enjoyed a distinguished military career that spanned nearly forty years. During World War I he commanded several American units and established a … READ MORE

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  • The Supreme War Council was an Allied administrative organisation, created by the Entente governments in November 1917 to coordinate their military action. Its most significant achievement was to … READ MORE

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  • In May 1916, the German government issued a pledge to the United States that the Imperial navy would not attack passenger ships and would further allow the crew of merchant ships which carried war … READ MORE

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  • World War I introduced new technologies and doctrine in a quest to overcome the tactical stalemate of the trenches. The first tanks had great potential that would be capitalized upon during the next … READ MORE

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  • Whether on the Western or Eastern Front, by German, French, British, Canadian, American and other armies, shows were regularly organized on the front lines and at base camps during the Great War. … READ MORE

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  • In 1918, producer Robert Goldstein was convicted and imprisoned under the Espionage Act of 1917 for screening ''The Spirit of ’76'', a movie about the American Revolution that authorities deemed … READ MORE

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  • "Trench Art" is a genre of folk art comprised of items created in wartime, or from war materiel. It may be made by servicemen and women or by civilians, and is particularly associated with the First … READ MORE

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  • A race riot is a mob-related domestic disturbance in which specific racial groups are targeted for violence. The United States experienced a significant increase in race riots during and after World … READ MORE

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  • The governments of all belligerent countries issued special loans to finance their expenditure after the war began. To mobilize the financial resources of their peoples required concerted war bonds … READ MORE

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  • Like the other warring nations, the United States had to organize its industries in support of its military effort. The War Industries Board was designed to provide the necessary coordination and … READ MORE

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  • Brand Whitlock served as the U.S. minister and ambassador to Belgium from 1914–1921. During the war, Whitlock facilitated the humanitarian activities of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, which … READ MORE

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  • Lieutenant Colonel Charles Whittlesey served in a unit of the U. S. Army’s 77th Division known as the “Lost Battalion” as it was trapped by German forces during the Meuse-Argonne … READ MORE

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  • Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the twenty-eighth president of the United States (1913-1921). Wilson unsuccessfully attempted to bring the belligerents to the negotiating table, but in 1917 reluctantly … READ MORE

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  • Wireless telegraphy became an integral part of warfare on the ground, in the air, and at sea by 1918. Wireless helped to make the war global, though historians still debate its impact on the course … READ MORE

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