Regions Italy

Survey Articles (Regional)

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • ''Arditi'' were elite assault troops in the Italian army. They also emerged on Italy’s post-war political scene thanks to newly formed associations. Even though many of them had ties to fascism, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Attrition warfare is the term used to describe the sustained process of wearing down an opponent so as to force their physical collapse through continuous losses in personnel, equipment and supplies … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Francesco Baracca was the most famous Italian aviator, and shot down thirty-four enemy airplanes. He began his career in 1910 as a cavalry officer and became an air-fighter in 1912. He fought in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Cesare Battisti was the leader of the socialist party of the Italian Tirol (Trentino) and, from 1911, a member of the Austrian parliament. At the outbreak of war he went to Italy to engage in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italian bishops and chaplains played a central role in making sense of the war by presenting sacrifice for one’s country as an act of charity and brotherly love. In addition to the 2,624 Catholic … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After a long parliamentary career, Paolo Boselli became Italy’s 22nd prime minister in June 1916 after the fall of Antonio Salandra’s government. Charged with forming a unity … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Luigi Cadorna was a career military man, the son of a major general in the army of Piedmont. He quickly climbed the military hierarchy to become chief of staff of the Italian army from July 1914 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Luigi Capello was an Italian general who took part in the war on the Gorizia front. As commander-in-chief of the Second Army, many held him to be chiefly to blame for the defeat of Caporetto. Having … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Caporetto, also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, remains the worst defeat suffered by the Italian army to date. It began at two o’clock in the morning on 24 October 1917 on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In December 1914, there were several truces between enemy soldiers along one part of the Western front. Widely publicized, they underscore how difficult it was for soldiers to adapt to the conditions … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Armando Diaz was an Italian officer and a general during World War I. In 1917, after the defeat of Caporetto, he replaced Luigi Cadorna as chief of general staff of the Italian army. He reformed the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Of the two world wars, the First World War was special in that fear figured prominently in a number of domains, including military tactics, psychiatry, and first-person sources. Fear was to be … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The use of portable flamethrowers in combat was a First World War innovation. The German army took the lead in developing this form of warfare and remained the foremost practitioner of it throughout … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gaetano Giardino was an Italian general best remembered for his role as commander of the Fourth Army, the army of the Grappa, and as minister of war during the parliamentary crisis of June 1917. In … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Gorizia, known as the Sixth Isonzo’s Battle, was fought by the Italian Third Army against the Austro-Hungarian Fifth Army between 6 and 16 August 1916. It resulted in the Italian … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italy entered the First World War in May 1915, roughly ten months after it began. During those ten months, the battle of opinions for and against intervention raged on. Public meetings, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The battles of Isonzo represented Italy’s main offensive efforts against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. The eleven battles took place between 1915 and 1917 along the Isonzo River … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912) took place mainly in Ottoman Libya following Italy’s invasion, not taking into consideration the fierce Ottoman and indigenous … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Between 1914 and 1918, the machine gun played an ever-increasing role on the battlefield. Today, even though artillery was responsible for the majority of deaths, the machine gun is the weapon most … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The First World War represents the apex of the ideal of the male warrior hero. Between 1914 and 1918, both the soldiers themselves and combatant societies relied upon gendered language to make sense … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The real naval war in the Mediterranean turned out to be a struggle against German and Austrian submarines and not a classic battle between major … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1915 the Italian government created an agency called ''Mobilitazione Industriale'' (Industrial Mobilisation) to manage economic activities and labour relations in wartime. The MI attempted to … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The history of the Italian military volunteers concerns not only the roughly 10,000 men who chose to fight without (or before) being drafted, but also the approximately 6,000 Italians who served in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italian Socialist Benito Mussolini envisioned war as the prerequisite for revolution. He helped push Italy into World War I. After combat service and medical discharge in 1917, he demanded war until … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italy’s war at sea reflected the more general trends of the naval warfare in the Great War: a stalemate that turned into a war of naval attrition. Only after harsh losses to national shipping and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Francesco Nitti was minister of the Treasury in the Orlando Cabinet after the defeat of Caporetto in 1917 and prime minister of Italy in 1919. During his mandate he signed the treaty of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ugo Ojetti was a journalist who, during the war, was tasked with the protection of monuments and artworks in the Italian-occupied territories. He was also instrumental in establishing and managing … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The two battles of the River Piave were fought between 10 November and 25 December 1917, and 15-23 June 1918, respectively. The Austro-Hungarian army, supported by German units, tried to bring about … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Socialists’ opposition to war in France, Germany and Italy during the period of the Second International (1889-1914) was contradictory. They tried to combine internationalism, antiwar … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Antonio Salandra was an important Italian politician in the early 20th century. When the Great War broke out, he was prime minister of Italy and had a decisive yet controversial role in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Sidney Sonnino was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during World War I. He negotiated the Treaty of London, defining the terms with which Italy would enter into the war alongside the Triple … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Storm troopers were soldiers in specialized assault units, which emerged in the German army during the First World … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Supreme War Council was an Allied administrative organisation, created by the Entente governments in November 1917 to coordinate their military action. Its most significant achievement was to … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the end of the Great War, many countries determined that they would bury an anonymous corpse to symbolize all those who died on the battlefields. In Italy, the ceremony for the entombment of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Trentino is an Italian-speaking region which was the southernmost part of the Tyrol. With Italy’s entry into the war, it found itself in the front area. After the war it was annexed to the Kingdom … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Victor Emmanuel III played an important, if often overlooked part in Italy’s decision to intervene in World War I on the side of the Entente. During the war, he managed to solve two political … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gabriele D’Annunzio’s phrase “mutilated victory” infers that Italy’s wartime sacrifices went unrewarded, but excessive Italian demands and inept diplomacy in Paris provoked French and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought between 24 October and 4 November 1918 by the Italian 4th, 8th, 10th and 12th Armies against the Austro-Hungarian … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a long-lasting industrial war, the Great War led to the realization of considerable profits throughout industrialized countries. Both real and imagined, they structured many wartime facets, from … READ MORE

    Entry
  • One third of the 9.7 million soldiers killed or declared missing during the Great War left behind a widow. The mourning of these women was conditioned as much by the social conventions practiced … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The nature of the First World War put an end to traditions for battle painting. Instead, war art by younger more progressive artists was the best received because it was judged the most authentic. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Soldiers’ attitudes towards the Great War are a controversial issue, as they prove difficult to assess and raise complex methodological questions. They evolved during the course of the conflict, … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article presents cartoonists as patriotic propagandists mobilizing their pens and brushes for the national cause during the war. It analyses their techniques for arousing emotions such as … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Censorship was an indispensable war weapon: its task was to keep the people in an atmosphere of utter ignorance and unshaken confidence in the authorities, and to allow their boundless indoctrination … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Mass conscription recast relationships in families, raised minors’ potential as wage earners, and decreased supervision over them. War ravaged the health of young people in Central Europe while … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By 1914 the leading states had succumbed to varying degrees of militarism, subordinating other interests to those of the armed forces, yet all were governed by regimes in which the ultimate authority … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article deals with civilian morale during the First World War. Between 1915 and 1918, governments “discovered” the importance of civilian morale and developed vast systems of surveillance to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the entire war, warring powers used the “secret war” to try to break the balance of the battlefield. Generally created in the previous few decades, intelligence and security services saw … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War was not only the precondition of the rise of fascist movements in a general way: more definitely, the fascists presented themselves as the heirs of the trench combatants. German … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War played a significant role in the evolution of film both as a medium for reporting war and as a tool for the propagandist manipulation of public opinion to support the war effort. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage (France) to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article focuses on the extent to which imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. The first part describes the emergence of specific imperialist cultures and attitudes in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article examines international efforts to curb states’ war-making prerogatives in the second half of the “long” 19th century. It captures new humanitarian sentiments circulating … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • In May 1915, Italy attacked Austria-Hungary along the Isonzo River and in the Trentino, hoping to conquer territory which it believed to be rightfully Italian. An immobile, entrenched war of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Across the major belligerent powers, industrial production and the mobilization and organization of industrial labor became central to the conduct of the First World War. States and private … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article compares the history of labour movements during the war across a range of European countries. It charts the impact of the economic realities of the war upon labour and analyses the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay offers a comparative survey of the practice of military justice among several of the key belligerent powers. Accused soldiers enjoyed little in the way of legal protection, and punishment … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of the progress of nationalism and the national idea starting with its origins as a mass political programme during the French Revolution and tracing its passage up to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • All of the great belligerent states of World War I were naval powers and engaged in operations around the globe. While the course of the war did not unfold as predicted by naval officials, it did … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • After an initial wave of interest in 1914 and the immediate post-war period, international historiography long neglected the wartime occupation of territories inhabited by large civilian populations. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Great War was never considered the “war to end all wars” by the states and armed forces in conflict. The war’s legacies were processed in a wide variety of ways depending on forms of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This paper examines major peace initiatives during World War I. It describes efforts by the chief European belligerents to split apart enemy coalitions with separate peace settlements as well … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Great War gave new impulses to the further development of public welfare systems which had emerged in previous decades. The desire for the social protection of the population and the restoration … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War marked the shift from a 19th century, relatively ''ad hoc'' management of prisoners of war, to the 20th century’s sophisticated prisoner of war camp … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article summarizes and compares the principal arguments and strategies of propaganda at the home front, the military front, as well as in neutral and enemy countries. These included the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores the policies adopted and implemented against enemy property from the beginning of the Great War to the signing of the peace treaties in Europe. Breaking a long-standing … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Raw materials were vital during the First World War. Due to the armaments production, the belligerents’ needs increased significantly, while the available resources fell. Each country intended both … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article addresses the scale of wartime population displacement in continental Europe, the relief efforts made on behalf of refugees, their impact on host communities, and the cultural … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • From the cradle to the grave, popular religion formed a necessary and vital, if analytically messy, part of the human experience of the Great War. The war had the potential to atomize and alienate … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The conduct of warfare in 1914-1918 included extensive population resettlement in all theatres of war in Europe, both as a result of pre-emptive decisions by civilians to flee in order to evade the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article surveys the various movements toward social, national, and political revolution that emerged during and in the wake of World War I. The Russian revolutions of 1917 serve as the first … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The paper describes the impact of war on peasantry and its mobilisation in the war effort. While observers portrayed the countryside as rich and callous towards urban shortages or waging war, the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The military service of teachers and the mobilization of schoolchildren for voluntary war work deeply disrupted schooling, especially in Central Europe. In continental Europe, war infused curricula … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Allied capacity at sea to sustain global transport and supply determined their ability to prevail in the First World War. The deployment of convoys to triumph over submarine warfare was an important … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • A vast array of initiatives designed to counteract the destructiveness of the First World War was developed by states and societies across the world. Protecting the bodies and minds of soldiers from … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Reflecting current historiography, this article focuses primarily on Christian churches centered in the main European theater of the Great War, including more global interactions with the other … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This essay examines how the "everyday" functions in war, not only for those on the home fronts, but for those in combat roles and for those living between the lines. Five important qualities, among … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • October 1918 witnessed the collapse of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies, both greatly affected by war-weariness and starvation. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy lost any remaining loyalty from its … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of peacemaking after the First World War from the armistices of 1918 until 1923. It considers the outcomes of the five Parisian treaties (Versailles, Saint-Germain and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Imperialism shaped almost every facet of international politics from 1898 to 1914. Imperial concerns brought Britain into entente relationships with France and Russia. This Triple Entente often … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Static “trench warfare” belied a dynamic transformation in warfare between 1914 and 1918. Every army grappled with the same issues: how to end a strategic stalemate occasioned by their ability to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • It may surprise us to learn that some sectors of the European public were in favour of the war in 1914. The impact of modern weapons was not well understood and many people in the government, … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article explores women’s economic, social, and political responses to the First World War. It addresses their mobilization including their engagement with the war effort as well as their … READ MORE

    Thematic

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • ''Arditi'' were elite assault troops in the Italian army. They also emerged on Italy’s post-war political scene thanks to newly formed associations. Even though many of them had ties to fascism, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Attrition warfare is the term used to describe the sustained process of wearing down an opponent so as to force their physical collapse through continuous losses in personnel, equipment and supplies … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Francesco Baracca was the most famous Italian aviator, and shot down thirty-four enemy airplanes. He began his career in 1910 as a cavalry officer and became an air-fighter in 1912. He fought in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Cesare Battisti was the leader of the socialist party of the Italian Tirol (Trentino) and, from 1911, a member of the Austrian parliament. At the outbreak of war he went to Italy to engage in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italian bishops and chaplains played a central role in making sense of the war by presenting sacrifice for one’s country as an act of charity and brotherly love. In addition to the 2,624 Catholic … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After a long parliamentary career, Paolo Boselli became Italy’s 22nd prime minister in June 1916 after the fall of Antonio Salandra’s government. Charged with forming a unity … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Luigi Cadorna was a career military man, the son of a major general in the army of Piedmont. He quickly climbed the military hierarchy to become chief of staff of the Italian army from July 1914 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Luigi Capello was an Italian general who took part in the war on the Gorizia front. As commander-in-chief of the Second Army, many held him to be chiefly to blame for the defeat of Caporetto. Having … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Caporetto, also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, remains the worst defeat suffered by the Italian army to date. It began at two o’clock in the morning on 24 October 1917 on … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In December 1914, there were several truces between enemy soldiers along one part of the Western front. Widely publicized, they underscore how difficult it was for soldiers to adapt to the conditions … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Armando Diaz was an Italian officer and a general during World War I. In 1917, after the defeat of Caporetto, he replaced Luigi Cadorna as chief of general staff of the Italian army. He reformed the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Of the two world wars, the First World War was special in that fear figured prominently in a number of domains, including military tactics, psychiatry, and first-person sources. Fear was to be … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The use of portable flamethrowers in combat was a First World War innovation. The German army took the lead in developing this form of warfare and remained the foremost practitioner of it throughout … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gaetano Giardino was an Italian general best remembered for his role as commander of the Fourth Army, the army of the Grappa, and as minister of war during the parliamentary crisis of June 1917. In … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Gorizia, known as the Sixth Isonzo’s Battle, was fought by the Italian Third Army against the Austro-Hungarian Fifth Army between 6 and 16 August 1916. It resulted in the Italian … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italy entered the First World War in May 1915, roughly ten months after it began. During those ten months, the battle of opinions for and against intervention raged on. Public meetings, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The battles of Isonzo represented Italy’s main offensive efforts against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. The eleven battles took place between 1915 and 1917 along the Isonzo River … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912) took place mainly in Ottoman Libya following Italy’s invasion, not taking into consideration the fierce Ottoman and indigenous … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Between 1914 and 1918, the machine gun played an ever-increasing role on the battlefield. Today, even though artillery was responsible for the majority of deaths, the machine gun is the weapon most … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The First World War represents the apex of the ideal of the male warrior hero. Between 1914 and 1918, both the soldiers themselves and combatant societies relied upon gendered language to make sense … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The real naval war in the Mediterranean turned out to be a struggle against German and Austrian submarines and not a classic battle between major … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1915 the Italian government created an agency called ''Mobilitazione Industriale'' (Industrial Mobilisation) to manage economic activities and labour relations in wartime. The MI attempted to … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The history of the Italian military volunteers concerns not only the roughly 10,000 men who chose to fight without (or before) being drafted, but also the approximately 6,000 Italians who served in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italian Socialist Benito Mussolini envisioned war as the prerequisite for revolution. He helped push Italy into World War I. After combat service and medical discharge in 1917, he demanded war until … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Italy’s war at sea reflected the more general trends of the naval warfare in the Great War: a stalemate that turned into a war of naval attrition. Only after harsh losses to national shipping and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Francesco Nitti was minister of the Treasury in the Orlando Cabinet after the defeat of Caporetto in 1917 and prime minister of Italy in 1919. During his mandate he signed the treaty of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ugo Ojetti was a journalist who, during the war, was tasked with the protection of monuments and artworks in the Italian-occupied territories. He was also instrumental in establishing and managing … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The two battles of the River Piave were fought between 10 November and 25 December 1917, and 15-23 June 1918, respectively. The Austro-Hungarian army, supported by German units, tried to bring about … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Socialists’ opposition to war in France, Germany and Italy during the period of the Second International (1889-1914) was contradictory. They tried to combine internationalism, antiwar … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Antonio Salandra was an important Italian politician in the early 20th century. When the Great War broke out, he was prime minister of Italy and had a decisive yet controversial role in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Sidney Sonnino was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during World War I. He negotiated the Treaty of London, defining the terms with which Italy would enter into the war alongside the Triple … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Storm troopers were soldiers in specialized assault units, which emerged in the German army during the First World … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Supreme War Council was an Allied administrative organisation, created by the Entente governments in November 1917 to coordinate their military action. Its most significant achievement was to … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the end of the Great War, many countries determined that they would bury an anonymous corpse to symbolize all those who died on the battlefields. In Italy, the ceremony for the entombment of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Trentino is an Italian-speaking region which was the southernmost part of the Tyrol. With Italy’s entry into the war, it found itself in the front area. After the war it was annexed to the Kingdom … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Victor Emmanuel III played an important, if often overlooked part in Italy’s decision to intervene in World War I on the side of the Entente. During the war, he managed to solve two political … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gabriele D’Annunzio’s phrase “mutilated victory” infers that Italy’s wartime sacrifices went unrewarded, but excessive Italian demands and inept diplomacy in Paris provoked French and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought between 24 October and 4 November 1918 by the Italian 4th, 8th, 10th and 12th Armies against the Austro-Hungarian … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a long-lasting industrial war, the Great War led to the realization of considerable profits throughout industrialized countries. Both real and imagined, they structured many wartime facets, from … READ MORE

    Entry
  • One third of the 9.7 million soldiers killed or declared missing during the Great War left behind a widow. The mourning of these women was conditioned as much by the social conventions practiced … READ MORE

    Entry