Regions Belgium

Survey Articles (Regional)

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • A minority of the adherents of the Flemish movement were willing to collaborate with the German occupier in the context of ''Flamenpolitik''. This minority labelled themselves “activists”, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Albert I, the third king of the Belgians, played a leading role as supreme commander of the Belgian army during the First World War. For four years he defended the last piece of unoccupied Belgium … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Attrition warfare is the term used to describe the sustained process of wearing down an opponent so as to force their physical collapse through continuous losses in personnel, equipment and supplies … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article briefly describes the 320,000 Belgian soldiers of the Great War. Who were they and what was special about the way they experienced the war compared to other … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Louise de Bettignies created an intelligence network for the British in occupied France. She was arrested, sentenced to death in March 1916 and deported to the prison of Siegburg. Sick, she died in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Moritz von Bissing was born on 30 January 1844, in Bellmannsdorf, Silesia, then part of the German Empire. He served as governor general of the Prussian Army from December 1914 until his death on 18 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a Flemish nationalist, August Borms actively collaborated with the Germans during the First World War. As a result of his ten-year imprisonment and his death sentence he became a true symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Charles de Broqueville, chief of the Belgian government during the First World War, acted as liaison between the king and the Belgian government. He supported the king in his attempts to obtain peace … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Belgian capital was spared the anguish of combat, but the city suffered four long years of occupation. In fact, it became the most important occupied city during the First World War. For the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Charleroi (21-23 August 1914), in which General Charles Lanrezac’s Fifth Army was nearly surrounded by German First, Second and Third Armies, was one of the deadliest combats that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Collaboration is often associated with the military occupations of the Second World War, but there was a precursor to this multi-faceted phenomenon in occupied France and Belgium during the First … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Comité national de Secours et d’Alimentation'' (National Committee for Relief and Food) was created in Brussels a few days after the start of the war to coordinate the action of notables, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • From 1914 to 1919, the Commission for Relief in Belgium directed an innovative and successful international food relief program for more than 9 million Belgian and French civilians who lived in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This is the first in what it is hoped will become a series of discussion forums hosted by ''1914-1918-online''. In this discussion forum, General Editor Peter Gatrell invited contributions that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Queen Elisabeth was the third queen of the Belgians. Her attitude during the First World War propelled her to the mythic rank of "Queen … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Eupen-Malmedy is the name given to the two districts that Germany ceded to Belgium in 1920 as a consequence of the Treaty of Versailles. This cession and the semblance of a “referendum”, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The German ''Flamenpolitik'' during the First World War aimed to instrumentalise the Flemish movement in order to ensure lasting German control over Belgium. It did not divide the Belgian or even … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The First World War engendered a rift within the Flemish movement, with some wishing to pursue the advocacy for Flemish rights and others preferring to await the end of the war to obtain new laws. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • European militaries considered fortifications before the First World War as vital to their strategic planning. Advancements in weapons technology after the mid-19th century caused … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1830, Belgium constituted a ''Garde Civique'' or Civic Guard''', '''a national institution to be deployed both for maintaining law and order and for territorial defence. In 1914, the Garde Civique … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After the German Army had occupied wide areas of Belgium, the “Imperial Government General in Belgium” was established on 23 August 1914 with a governor-general at its head. Organized into a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the start of the First World War, tens of thousands of Germans lived in Belgium, with noted communities in Antwerp and Brussels. How the Germans in Belgium experienced the war years, ranging from … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1915 the Germans built an electric fence along the Belgian-Dutch border, consisting of three lines of wires which were intended to stop all disturbing border activities that might severely harm … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the invasion and occupation of 1914-1918, German soldiers had sexual relations with local women in Belgium and France. There were many cases of rape during the invasion, but the occupation … READ MORE

    Entry
  • La Dame Blanche was an intelligence network created in Belgium in 1916. It was essentially devoted to the observation of railways. At the end of the war, it was comprised of over 1,000 agents and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A few weeks before his entry in Brussels, on 22 November 1918, Albert I, King of the Belgians, held talks with various politicians in Loppem Castle. Some particularly important decisions were made, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Marinegebiet'' on the Belgian coast was the Imperial German Navy’s base for attritional warfare against Entente shipping in the North Sea. The resulting occupation regime was particularly … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Adolphe Max, the mayor of Brussels, was known for his peaceful resistance against the Germans and his resulting jail-time. He was considered by the Belgian public as a hero of the Great … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The inter-allied memorial commemorates the First World War and the fallen, as well as the wartime cooperation between the Allies. Its inter-allied character and its scale make this memorial one of a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After his pastoral letter ''Patriotisme et endurance'', which had a worldwide impact, the Cardinal Archbishop of Mechlin, Désiré Mercier, was seen both in Belgium and abroad as the incarnation of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The city of Mons took on great symbolic importance during the Great War. In both August 1914 and November 1918, the region was the scene of clashes between Commonwealth troops and German soldiers. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the 19th century, neutrality evolved into a set of legal and political tools designed to limit the impact of wars on the international system. This form of neutrality did not … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Civilians under military occupation in World War One found their existences severely circumscribed, but they exercised agency – not through large-scale, decisive actions, but through small-scale … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gabrielle Petit was a secret intelligence agent working for the British General Headquarters (GHQ) in occupied Belgium. She collected information on the German Sixth Army in the Tournai-Lille area. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Accused of refusing to collaborate with the German authorities, the Belgian historian Henri Pirenne was deported to Germany in 1916. His captivity led him to reconsider his view on German historical … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Prostitution was considered among the most important societal problems facing civilian-military authorities in belligerent countries during World War I. Despite growing military control of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The rear area was the space behind the front, linking the operational zone with the home territory. While this area constituted a place of calm and recreation for soldiers returning from front duty, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In Belgium, the outbreak of the First World War and subsequent German invasion caused massive population movements. Hundreds of thousands of Belgian refugees fled the country to seek asylum in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In occupied Belgium and France, citizens opposed the German army with organized but non-violent resistance. They created networks dedicated to military intelligence gathering, escape lines, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The 1923-1925 Ruhr occupation by France and Belgium was triggered when Germany defaulted on its reparations obligations. A passive resistance campaign obstructed the invaders but collapsed in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Industrial tycoon and philanthropist Ernest Solvay transformed the chemical industry by developing a groundbreaking process for the manufacturing of soda ash. At the outbreak of World War I, he … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the war, the Germans created a Flemish university in Ghent. By doing so, they fulfilled one of the Flemish movement’s principal … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Rodrigo de Saavedra y Vinent, Marqués de Villalobar was the diplomatic representative of Spain to Belgium from 1913 to 1926. During the war, his humanitarian activities in occupied Belgium … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Belgian city of Ypres is synonymous with the First World War. Ypres gave its name to three major battles: First Ypres (19 October - 22 November 1914), Second Ypres (21 April - 25 May 1915) and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Menin Gate in Ypres is the best known of the memorials to the missing in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's care. Designed by architect Sir Reginald Blomfield it is where the Last Post, the … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • A minority of the adherents of the Flemish movement were willing to collaborate with the German occupier in the context of ''Flamenpolitik''. This minority labelled themselves “activists”, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Albert I, the third king of the Belgians, played a leading role as supreme commander of the Belgian army during the First World War. For four years he defended the last piece of unoccupied Belgium … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Attrition warfare is the term used to describe the sustained process of wearing down an opponent so as to force their physical collapse through continuous losses in personnel, equipment and supplies … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article briefly describes the 320,000 Belgian soldiers of the Great War. Who were they and what was special about the way they experienced the war compared to other … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Louise de Bettignies created an intelligence network for the British in occupied France. She was arrested, sentenced to death in March 1916 and deported to the prison of Siegburg. Sick, she died in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Moritz von Bissing was born on 30 January 1844, in Bellmannsdorf, Silesia, then part of the German Empire. He served as governor general of the Prussian Army from December 1914 until his death on 18 … READ MORE

    Entry
  • As a Flemish nationalist, August Borms actively collaborated with the Germans during the First World War. As a result of his ten-year imprisonment and his death sentence he became a true symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Charles de Broqueville, chief of the Belgian government during the First World War, acted as liaison between the king and the Belgian government. He supported the king in his attempts to obtain peace … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Belgian capital was spared the anguish of combat, but the city suffered four long years of occupation. In fact, it became the most important occupied city during the First World War. For the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A technique of concealment and protection, a means to deceive but not kill, camouflage was significantly developed during the First World War. The technique enabled many artists to put their talents … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Battle of Charleroi (21-23 August 1914), in which General Charles Lanrezac’s Fifth Army was nearly surrounded by German First, Second and Third Armies, was one of the deadliest combats that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Collaboration is often associated with the military occupations of the Second World War, but there was a precursor to this multi-faceted phenomenon in occupied France and Belgium during the First … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Comité national de Secours et d’Alimentation'' (National Committee for Relief and Food) was created in Brussels a few days after the start of the war to coordinate the action of notables, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • From 1914 to 1919, the Commission for Relief in Belgium directed an innovative and successful international food relief program for more than 9 million Belgian and French civilians who lived in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This is the first in what it is hoped will become a series of discussion forums hosted by ''1914-1918-online''. In this discussion forum, General Editor Peter Gatrell invited contributions that … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Queen Elisabeth was the third queen of the Belgians. Her attitude during the First World War propelled her to the mythic rank of "Queen … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Eupen-Malmedy is the name given to the two districts that Germany ceded to Belgium in 1920 as a consequence of the Treaty of Versailles. This cession and the semblance of a “referendum”, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A minority section of the women’s movements opposed World War I and organized the International Congress of Women at The Hague in April 1915. Its participants demanded women’s rights and more … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The German ''Flamenpolitik'' during the First World War aimed to instrumentalise the Flemish movement in order to ensure lasting German control over Belgium. It did not divide the Belgian or even … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The First World War engendered a rift within the Flemish movement, with some wishing to pursue the advocacy for Flemish rights and others preferring to await the end of the war to obtain new laws. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • European militaries considered fortifications before the First World War as vital to their strategic planning. Advancements in weapons technology after the mid-19th century caused … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1830, Belgium constituted a ''Garde Civique'' or Civic Guard''', '''a national institution to be deployed both for maintaining law and order and for territorial defence. In 1914, the Garde Civique … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After the German Army had occupied wide areas of Belgium, the “Imperial Government General in Belgium” was established on 23 August 1914 with a governor-general at its head. Organized into a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • At the start of the First World War, tens of thousands of Germans lived in Belgium, with noted communities in Antwerp and Brussels. How the Germans in Belgium experienced the war years, ranging from … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In 1915 the Germans built an electric fence along the Belgian-Dutch border, consisting of three lines of wires which were intended to stop all disturbing border activities that might severely harm … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the invasion and occupation of 1914-1918, German soldiers had sexual relations with local women in Belgium and France. There were many cases of rape during the invasion, but the occupation … READ MORE

    Entry
  • La Dame Blanche was an intelligence network created in Belgium in 1916. It was essentially devoted to the observation of railways. At the end of the war, it was comprised of over 1,000 agents and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A few weeks before his entry in Brussels, on 22 November 1918, Albert I, King of the Belgians, held talks with various politicians in Loppem Castle. Some particularly important decisions were made, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The ''Marinegebiet'' on the Belgian coast was the Imperial German Navy’s base for attritional warfare against Entente shipping in the North Sea. The resulting occupation regime was particularly … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Adolphe Max, the mayor of Brussels, was known for his peaceful resistance against the Germans and his resulting jail-time. He was considered by the Belgian public as a hero of the Great … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The inter-allied memorial commemorates the First World War and the fallen, as well as the wartime cooperation between the Allies. Its inter-allied character and its scale make this memorial one of a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • After his pastoral letter ''Patriotisme et endurance'', which had a worldwide impact, the Cardinal Archbishop of Mechlin, Désiré Mercier, was seen both in Belgium and abroad as the incarnation of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The city of Mons took on great symbolic importance during the Great War. In both August 1914 and November 1918, the region was the scene of clashes between Commonwealth troops and German soldiers. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the 19th century, neutrality evolved into a set of legal and political tools designed to limit the impact of wars on the international system. This form of neutrality did not … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Civilians under military occupation in World War One found their existences severely circumscribed, but they exercised agency – not through large-scale, decisive actions, but through small-scale … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Gabrielle Petit was a secret intelligence agent working for the British General Headquarters (GHQ) in occupied Belgium. She collected information on the German Sixth Army in the Tournai-Lille area. … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Accused of refusing to collaborate with the German authorities, the Belgian historian Henri Pirenne was deported to Germany in 1916. His captivity led him to reconsider his view on German historical … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Prostitution was considered among the most important societal problems facing civilian-military authorities in belligerent countries during World War I. Despite growing military control of the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The rear area was the space behind the front, linking the operational zone with the home territory. While this area constituted a place of calm and recreation for soldiers returning from front duty, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In Belgium, the outbreak of the First World War and subsequent German invasion caused massive population movements. Hundreds of thousands of Belgian refugees fled the country to seek asylum in the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • In occupied Belgium and France, citizens opposed the German army with organized but non-violent resistance. They created networks dedicated to military intelligence gathering, escape lines, … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The 1923-1925 Ruhr occupation by France and Belgium was triggered when Germany defaulted on its reparations obligations. A passive resistance campaign obstructed the invaders but collapsed in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Industrial tycoon and philanthropist Ernest Solvay transformed the chemical industry by developing a groundbreaking process for the manufacturing of soda ash. At the outbreak of World War I, he … READ MORE

    Entry
  • During the war, the Germans created a Flemish university in Ghent. By doing so, they fulfilled one of the Flemish movement’s principal … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Rodrigo de Saavedra y Vinent, Marqués de Villalobar was the diplomatic representative of Spain to Belgium from 1913 to 1926. During the war, his humanitarian activities in occupied Belgium … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Belgian city of Ypres is synonymous with the First World War. Ypres gave its name to three major battles: First Ypres (19 October - 22 November 1914), Second Ypres (21 April - 25 May 1915) and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Menin Gate in Ypres is the best known of the memorials to the missing in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's care. Designed by architect Sir Reginald Blomfield it is where the Last Post, the … READ MORE

    Entry