The historiography of the First World War in Portugal was largely conditioned by the country’s political evolution over the course of the 20th century. The legitimacy of António de Oliveira Salazar’s (1889-1970) New State rested in part on the ruthless criticism of the preceding regime, the First Republic, depicted as the inevitably anarchic consequence of a democratic brand of politics unsuited to Portugal. The republican leadership’s handling of the First World War was the focus of an important part of this criticism.
Few critical explorations of the war were attempted during Salazar’s long hold on power. By the time his successor, Marcelo Caetano (1906-1980), was overthrown, in 1974, a renewal of interest in the First Republic and its leaders was under way, and it gained momentum with the change of regime. Simultaneously however, political, diplomatic and military history were being side-lined, with the First World War being seen primarily as a backdrop for the increased social tensions whose suppression had required the overthrow of the Republic. In the years that followed historians outside Portugal made the most telling contributions to the advancement of understanding the country’s role in the First World War.
In the 1990s the situation changed considerably. On the one hand there was a renewal of domestic interest in political history, which allowed for a fresh interpretation of the First Republic; on the other, foreign-trained Portuguese historians placed the country’s participation in the conflict squarely at the centre of their investigations, calling into question long-held assumptions about the war’s limited role in transforming Portuguese life.
From the Post-War Years to Salazar’s New State: Memoirs, First-Hand Accounts and Documents↑
In the aftermath of the First World War there was a flurry of publications written by returning veterans. Some were critical of the Portuguese intervention, most were laudatory, and almost all were devoted to the fighting in Flanders, the African campaigns quickly losing out in public and official interest. In a number of cases the authors sought to justify the interventionist position, which they had defended until the departure of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP: Corpo Expedicionário Português) for France in January 1917. Some of the leading players published their memoirs, most notably General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (1863-1929), in charge of the Portuguese 2nd Division during the Battle of the Lys, on 9 April 1918. His immediate superior, General Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu (1856-1924), also wrote his memoirs, but these – some excerpts in the press aside – did not see the light of day until long after his death.
In terms of official documents, it is worth noting that a white book on Portugal’s intervention, insistently called for since 1916, saw only a first volume published in 1920, and this with significant omissions and redactions. The material assembled for the remaining volume vanished for a time. The enterprise was reviewed and completed by the Portuguese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the 1990s, giving renewed impetus to researchers – even if the material was limited to that of the Ministry’s archives. The minutes of the crucial secret sessions of parliament, held in July 1917, were only published in 2002.
In the early period of the New State a small number of works seemed to have closed the lid on the historiography of the war. General Luis Augusto Ferreira Martins (1875-1967), once a member of the deeply politicised general staff of the CEP and, like the rest of his colleagues, a committed interventionist, was able to reconcile this current with the army’s more self-serving interpretation of the conflict in the two-volume work he oversaw, Portugal na Grande Guerra. Similarly, Hernâni Cidade (1887-1975), a rising academic figure who had fought with great distinction in the conflict, being taken prisoner in 1918, summarised the country’s belligerence in a 1935 article, “Portugal na Grande Guerra: 1914-1918”, published as part of a multi-volume História de Portugal.
In the final years of the New State, historian António Henrique de Oliveira Marques (1933-2007) began to write on the First Republic. Alongside these early explorations, he also began to publish key primary sources such as the speeches and letters of Afonso Costa (1871-1937) and the minutes of his wartime cabinet meetings.
Also visible before and after the April 1974 Revolution was an interest in the experience of Sidónio Pais (1872-1918), who toppled Afonso Costa’s interventionist government in December 1917. Once in power, eager to build a “New Republic”, Pais sketched out a new approach to government which presaged the authoritarian solutions that would soon begin to proliferate across Europe. Vasco Pulido Valente considered Pais’ year in power (December 1917-1918) in a pioneering 1965 article; in 1978 António José Telo looked at this episode from a class point of view, arguing that it constituted a first attempt to secure power by those economic groups, beginning with southern landowners, who would later underpin the New State; and Manuel Villaverde Cabral attempted to insert “sidonismo” into the wider context of the war.
It was non-Portuguese historians, however, who took the lead in placing the First World War squarely at the heart of their research into Portuguese affairs. John Vincent-Smith considered the nature of the Anglo-Portuguese alliance in the years leading up to Portugal’s belligerence, in a doctoral thesis published in 1971. Douglas Wheeler wrote the first political history of the First Republic in decades, naturally considering the war years in some detail. René Pélissier investigated, at long last, Portugal’s wartime colonial campaigns, noting that the contemporary “pacification” attempts were as important, if not more so, than the struggle against the German forces operating in the area. Finally, Hipolito de la Torre Gomez looked at Portuguese-Spanish relations after 1910 in a series of volumes, doing so on the basis of a very thorough description of the political situation pertaining in each country. Alongside these scholars, some Portuguese historians attempted, in isolated initiatives, to broaden the existing understanding of aspects of Portugal’s wartime experience. João Medina, for example, edited an innovative collection examining the Portuguese home front and the divisions caused by the interventionist debate. José Medeiros Ferreira considered the Great War as part of a wider study into Civilian and Military Power in 20th century Portugal, and also produced the first investigation into the Portuguese delegation at the Paris peace talks.
In the 1990s, the situation changed dramatically. Portuguese historiography in general was evolving away from the Marxist and structuralist concerns and approaches that had dominated it since the 1974 Carnation Revolution, and political history was slowly making a comeback. A lead was taken by historians training outside Portugal. Nuno Severiano Teixeira’s O Poder e a Guerra, published in 1996, revisited the reasons for Portugal’s intervention and found them in the political instability which characterised the republican regime; Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses’ União Sagrada e Sidonismo, published four years later, took this as a starting point and considered the consequences, for Portugal, of its incomplete wartime political and cultural mobilisations. As was noted by a recent survey of the war’s historiography, these works set the tone for much subsequent writing by reaffirming the primacy of the domestic sphere – by, in other words, subordinating the republican government’s foreign diplomatic options to their immediate need to shore up the young regime at home.
The following years saw a growing interest in the First World War. There was a renewed focus in military history, be it relating to the Western Front, or to the African campaigns. Two recent works have gone a long way towards reminding a wider Portuguese public of the importance – and the cost – of the Portuguese campaigns in Mozambique. In relation to the war in Europe, attention was finally paid to the circumstances faced by Portuguese soldiers in the trenches. A general round-up of all the campaigns was produced by Aniceto Afonso in 2008. These works were almost exclusively written on the basis of Portuguese documentation.
New explanations have also been advanced for the origins and consequences of Portugal’s military intervention, a topic that naturally allows for many very different readings. Noémia Malva Novais focused on the role played by João Chagas (1863-1925), arguably the most influential and dynamic interventionist voice in Portugal from 1914 onwards. Chagas was Portugal’s minister in Paris from 1914 to 1917, and his diaries remain essential reading for anyone interested in the Portuguese participation in the war. Chagas’s vision was problematised further by Luís Alves de Fraga, who posited the war as a great strategic gamble designed to allow Portugal to emerge from the debilitating shadow of Great Britain. A good starting point to the debates on the war’s strategic dimension can be found in a special number of Nação e Defesa, published in 2014.
Also significant has been a second wave of interest in the figure of Sidónio Pais. João Medina focused his attention on the President’s cult of personality before and after his murder in December 1918. In 1998 Miguel Nunes Ramalho published a study of the future President’s time as minister to Berlin and later, as a conspirator, in Lisbon. These years and indeed the whole of Sidónio Pais’ life and thought would be considered in minute detail by Armando Malheiro da Silva in his two-volume Sidónio e Sidonismo, in many ways a counter to all those who continued the view of Sidónio Pais as a proto-fascist. Pais’ “New Republic” was the subject of further work by Maria Alice Samara, who attempted to reconnect wartime conditions in Portugal, and their political evolution, with the working-class struggle in Portugal and the reaction it provoked. Other biographical works have added to our understanding of the period’s leading political figures, notably General Joaquim Pimenta de Castro (1846-1918), António José de Almeida (1866-1929), and Afonso Costa.
The year 2010 marked the centenary of the Portuguese First Republic. The event was marked by considerable official festivities and a number of publications devoted to the regime. All of these naturally addressed the war. Soon after this anniversary a number of other detailed studies widened understanding of the conflict and its consequences, denoting the benefits of the growing internationalisation of the Portuguese historical profession. Ana Paula Pires published the first analysis of the profound economic consequences of the Portuguese intervention in the First World War in her PhD thesis. Sílvia Correia produced probably the finest-yet cultural history of an aspect of the war in her investigation of post-war commemoration of the fallen by veterans and the rest of Portuguese society. And Noémia Malva Novais published an important study of the Portuguese press and censorship in wartime.
Current and Future Debates↑
Interest in Portugal’s participation in the First World War continued to grow in subsequent years, thanks in large measure to the centenaries of the conflict. In October 2014 the organisation of a “Collection Day” at the Portuguese Parliament, under the banner of “Europeana 1914-1918”, as a part of which the general public was invited to contribute their memorabilia, contributed to raise awareness of, and facilitate knowledge transfer on, Portugal’s involvement in the war. The materials collected were made available in two specific online platforms. They were then used in an online exhibition, developed by the Google Cultural Institute, titled “We Know this War by Heart”. In 2016 António José Telo and Pedro Marquês de Sousa returned to military history in a very detailed look at the experience of the CEP in France, culminating at the battle of the Lys. Using a wide variety of sources, notably British military documents, they paint the picture of a unit which was cynically sacrificed first by the politicians who dispatched it to France and failed to look after its needs and then by the British High Command, who assigned its exhausted soldiers an impossible task in the face of one of the war’s great offensives. A volume produced by Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses in 2018 analyses at length Portugal’s costliest engagement in the First World War, the battle of the Lys. This interpretation of the lead-up to the battle was complemented by the simultaneous publication of General Tamagnini de Abreu’s war diary.This wave of new works culminated with the publication of a substantial book overseen by the Comissão Portuguesa de História Militar, titled Portugal na I Guerra Mundial: Uma História Miltar Concisa – a must-read for all those interested in the strategic and military aspects of the country’s participation in the conflict.
In more recent years international historiography started to expand spatially the study of the conflict, moving beyond Europe. Portugal, due to the overlap between its colonial empire and the African war front, started to be included in the narrative that sustained this “new global history” of the First World War. In 2014, Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses analysed the Portuguese Empire in the volume Empires at War, edited by Robert Gerwarth and Erez Manela, while Ana Paula Pires and Fernanda Rollo studied the economic impact of the conflict in Portuguese East Africa. This global approach can also be seen in the recent works by Sérgio Rezendes focusing on the Azores and on the Atlantic dimension of the First World War, and in the recently published volume The Global First World War and its Aftermath, coordinated by Ana Paula Pires, Jan Schmidt and María Inés Tato.
A very different approach was taken by a workshop held at Brown University in March 2016, entitled The Lusophone World at War, 1914-1918 and Beyond. The premise was to investigate the way in which the war affected the bonds between the Portuguese metropolis, the colonial empire, emigrant communities abroad and Brazil, which entered the war late in 1917. The proceedings, which combine a variety of approaches, from the cultural to the social and diplomatic, were published in the e-Journal of Portuguese History.
Within the New State’s skewed narrative of Portuguese history, participation in the Great War was rarely mentioned, and then only to be portrayed as a foolhardy enterprise undertaken by amateurish politicians who put faction politics over national interest. A long road has been travelled since then, with a much better understanding having been developed over the nature of Portugal’s participation in the conflict, in Europe and in Africa, as well as on the home front. The diplomatic and military interest in the conflict is now matched by an equally active social and cultural historiography which is well integrated with prevailing foreign currents and networks. Nevertheless, a number of issues remain contentious among historians writing on Portugal’s experience of the First World War – issues surrounding the primacy of domestic over foreign policy, the impact of the conflict on the First Republic’s political project, and the relations between the British and Portuguese commands in France, notably in the run-up to the battle of the Lys.
Ana Paula Pires, Universidade dos Açores
Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses, National University of Ireland Maynooth
Reviewed by external referees on behalf of the General Editors
- See, for example, Amaral, João Ferreira do: A Mentira de Flandres e...o Medo [The Flanders lie… and fear], Lisbon 1922.
- Among the most significant eyewitness accounts of the CEP’s existence one should mention: Brun, Major André: A Malta das Trincheiras: Migalhas da Grande Guerra [The men in the trenches. Crumbs of the Great War, 1917-1918], Lisbon 1923; Casimiro, Augusto: Nas Trincheiras da Flandres [In Flanders’ trenches], Oporto 1918 and Calvário da Flandres, Oporto  1920; Cortesão, Jaime: Memórias da Grande Guerra [Memories of the Great War], Oporto 1919; Malheiro, Coronel Alexandre: Da Flandres ao Hanover e Mecklenburgo (Notas de um Prisioneiro), Oporto 1919; Mardel, Coronel Eugénio: A “Brigada do Minho” na Flandres: O 9 de Abril. Relatório da Batalha e sua Documentação, Lisbon 1923; Olavo, Américo: Na Grande Guerra [In the Great War], Lisbon 1919; Olavo, Carlos: Jornal de um Prisioneiro de Guerra na Alemanha, Lisbon 1919; and Ribeiro, Joaquim: Na Guerra: Depoimento de um Voluntário, Lisbon 1919.
- For an important and influential exception, see Selvagem, Carlos: Tropa d’África: jornal de Campanha dum Voluntário do Niassa, Paris et al. 1925.
- Gomes da Costa, Fernando: O Corpo de Exército Português na Grande Guerra: A Batalha do Lys – 9 de Abril de 1918, Oporto 1920. See also his first public writing on the subject, an adaptation of his official report on the battle: Gomes da Costa, Fernando: Batalha de La Lys, 9 de Abril de 1918 [Battle of La Lys, 9 April 1918], in: Ilustração Portuguesa (22 July 1918). Among political figures, see d’Ornellas, Ayres: Um Ano de Guerra, Oporto 1915; de Brito Camacho, Manuel: Portugal na Guerra [Portugal at war], Lisbon 1935; Matos, José Mendes Ribeiro Norton de: Memórias e Trabalhos da Minha Vida [Memories and works of my life], volume 4, Lisbon 1944; and Moniz, Egas: Um Ano de Política, Lisbon 1919. See also de Castro Osório, Ana: De Como Portugal Foi Chamado à Guerra: História para Crianças, Lisbon 1918.
- Marques, Isabel Pestana (ed.): Memórias do General 1915-1919. “Os Meus Três Comandos” de Fernando Tamagnini [The General’s Memoirs, 1915-1919. “My Three Commands”, by Fernando Tamagnini], Viseu 2004.
- Documentos Apresentados ao Congresso da República em 1920 pelo Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Portugal no Conflito Europeu. 1ª Parte. Negociações até à Declaração de Guerra, Lisbon 1920.
- Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, Portugal na Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914-1918) [Portugal in the First World War (1914-1918)], Lisbon 1997, 2 volumes.
- Mira, Ana (ed.): Actas das Sessões Secretas da Câmara dos Deputados e do Senado da República Sobre a Participação de Portugal na I Grande Guerra, Lisbon 2002.
- Martins, General Ferreira: Portugal na Grande Guerra [Portugal in the Great War], Lisbon 1934-35, 2 volumes.
- Cidade, Hêrnani: Portugal na Grande Guerra: 1914-1918 [Portugal in the Great War: 1914-1918], in Peres, Damião (ed.): História de Portugal [History of Portugal], volume 7, Barcelos 1935.
- Oliveira Marques, A. H. de: História da Primeira República Portuguesa: As estruturas de Base [History of the Portuguese First Republic. The basic structures], Lisbon n.d.
- Oliveira Marues, A. H. de (ed.): O Segundo Governo Afonso Costa: Actas dos Conselhos de Ministros [Afonso Costa’s second government, 1915-1916. Minutes of the Council of Ministers], Lisbon 1974; O Terceiro Governo Afonso Costa: Actas dos Conselhos de Ministros [Minutes of the Council of Ministers], Lisbon 1977; Costa, Afonso: Discursos Parlamentares 1914-1926, Lisbon 1977.
- Valente, Vasco Pulido: Portugal e a Guerra de 1914-1918, in: O Tempo e o Modo 33 (1965), pp.1201-1215.
- Telo, António José: O Sidonismo e o Movimento Operário: Luta de Classes em Portugal, 1917-1919 [Sidonism and the labour movement. Class struggle in Portugal, 1917-1919], Lisbon 1978.
- Cabral, Manuel Villaverde: A Grande Guerra e o Sidonismo, in: Análise Social 58 (1979), pp. 373-392.
- Vincent-Smith, John: Britain and Portugal, 1910-1916. PhD Thesis, University of London 1971. See also his article Britain, Portugal and the First World War, 1914-1916, in: European Studies Review 4/3 (1974).
- Wheeler, Douglas L.: Republican Portugal: A Political History, Madison 1978.
- See, for example, Pélissier, René: Naissance du Mozambique: Résistance et révoltes anticoloniales (1854-1918), Orgeval 1984.
- See especially his Na Encruzilhada da Grande Guerra: Portugal e Espanha, 1913-1914 [At the crossroads of the Great War. Portugal and Spain, 1913-1914], Lisbon 1980.
- Medina, João (ed.): Guerristas e Antiguerristas [Warriors and anti-warriors], Lisbon 1986.
- Ferreira, José Medeiros: O Comportamento Político dos Militares: Forças Armadas e Regimes Políticos no Século XX [The political behaviour of the military. Armed forces and political regimes in Portugal in the 20th century], Lisbon 1992, and Portugal na Conferência da Paz [Paris 1919] Lisbon 1992.
- Teixeira, Nuno Severiano: O Poder e a Guerra, 1914-1918 [Power and war, 1914-1918], Lisbon 1996.
- de Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro: União Sagrada e Sidonismo: Portugal em Guerra (1916-1918) [The sacred union and Sidonism. Portugal at war, 1916-1918], Lisbon 2000. An adapted version was published in English as Portugal 1914-1926: From the First World War to Military Dictatorship, Bristol 2004.
- Duarte, António Paulo / Reis, Bruno Cardoso: O Debate Historiográfico sobre a Grande Guerra de 1914-1918, in: Nação e Defesa 139 (2014), pp. 100-122.
- Henriques, Mendo Castro / Leitão, António Rosas: La Lys 1918: Os Soldados Desconhecidos, Lisbon 2001; Fraga, Luís Alves de: Guerra e Marginalidade: O Comportamento das Tropas Portuguesas em França, 1917-1918 [On the margins of war. The behaviour of the Portuguese troops in France, 1917-1918], Lisbon 2003.
- Cann, John P.: Angola and the Great War, in: Small Wars & Insurgencies 12 (2001), pp. 144-65; de Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro: The Portuguese Empire, in: Gerwarth, Robert / Manela, Erez (eds): Empires at War, 1911-1923, Oxford 2014, pp. 179-196.
- Marques, Ricardo: Os Fantasmas do Rovuma: A Epopeia dos Soldados Portugues em África na I Guerra Mundial, Lisbon 2012, and Carvalho, Manuel: A Guerra que Portugal Quis Esquecer [The war which Portugal chose to forget], Oporto 2015.
- Marques, Isabel Pestana. Das Trincheiras com Saudade: A Vida Quotidiana dos Soldados Portugueses na Primeira Guerra Mundial [From the trenches, with ‘Saudade’. Daily life of Portuguese troops in World War I], Lisbon 2008. More recent works have focused on military chaplains and on the fate of Portuguese prisoners of war in Germany. See, respectively, Brito Moura, Maria Lúcia de: Nas Trincheiras da Flandres. Com Deus ou sem Deus, Eis a Questão [In Flanders’ trenches. With or without God, that is the question], Lisbon 2010; and Oliveira, Maria José: Prisioneiros Portugueses da Primeira Guerra Mundial – Frente Europeia – 1917-1918, Porto Salvo 2017.
- Afonso, Aniceto: Grande Guerra – Angola, Moçambique e Flandres, 1914-1918 [Great War. Angola, Mozambique and Flanders, 1914-1918], Lisbon 2008.
- See, among other works Malva Novais, Noémia: João Chagas: A Diplomacia e a Guerra (1914-1918), Coimbra 2006.
- Fraga, Luís Alves de: Do Intervencionismo ao Sidonismo: Os Dois Segmentos da Política de Guerra na Primeira República, 1916-1918 [From interventionism to Sidonism. The two segments of war policy in the First Republic, 1916 to 1918], Coimbra 2010.
- Nação e Defesa 139 (2014).
- Medina, João: Morte e Transfiguração de Sidónio Pais [The death and transfiguration of Sidónio Pais], Lisbon 1994.
- Ramalho, Miguel Nunes: Sidónio Pais Diplomata e Conspirador (1912-1917) [Sidónio Pais, diplomat and conspirator, 1912-1917], Lisbon 1998.
- Silva, Armando Malheiro da: Sidónio e Sidonismo [Sidónio and Sidonism], 2 volumes, Coimbra 2006.
- Samara, Maria Alice: Verdes e Vermelhos: Portugal e Guerra no Ano de Sidónio Pais [Green and red. Portugal and the war in year of Sidónio Pais], Lisbon 2002.
- Navarro, Bruno J.: Governo de Pimenta de Castro: Um General no Labirinto Político da I República [The government of Pimenta de Castro. A general in the political labyrinth of the First Republic], Lisbon 2011; Pires, Ana Paula: António José de Almeida: O Tribuno da República [António José de Almeida. The Republic’s tribune], Lisbon 2011; Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro de: Afonso Costa: Portugal, London 2010, and A Grande Guerra de Afonso Costa, Lisbon 2015.
- Among various other works, see Amaral, Luciano: Outubro: A Revolução Republicana em Portugal (1910-1926) [October. The Republican revolution in Portugal, 1910-1926], Lisbon 2011; Rosas, Fernando / Rollo, Maria Fernanda (eds): História da Primeira República Portuguesa [History of the Portuguese First Republic], Lisbon 2009; and Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro de / Oliveira, Pedro Aires (eds): A I República Portuguesa: Diplomacia, Guerra e Império, Lisbon 2011.
- Pires, Ana Paula: Portugal e a I Guerra Mundial: A República e a Economia de Guerra [Portugal and the First World War. The republic and the war economy], Casal de Cambra 2011.
- Correia, Sílvia: Entre a Morte e o Mito: Políticas da Memória da I Guerra Mundial (1918-1933) [Between death and myth. Politics of the memory of World War I in Portugal (1918-1933)], Lisbon 2015.
- Novais, Noémia Malva: Imprensa e I Guerra Mundial: Censura e Propaganda, 1914-1918, Casal de Cambra 2016.
- https://portugal1914.org (retrieved 2 September 2021) and https://www.europeana.eu/pt/item/2021901/PT1914_MEM_OBJ_7189 (retrieved 2 September 2021).
- https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/we-know-this-war-by-heart/gQyoPck7 (retrieved 2 September 2021).
- Telo, António José / Sousa, Pedro Marquês de: O CEP: Os Militares Sacrificados pela Má Política [The CEP. Soldiers sacrificed by poor politics], Oporto 2016.
- Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro de: De Lisboa a La Lys: O Corpo Expedicionário Português na Primeira Guerra Mundial [From Lisbon to La Lys. The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps in France, 1917-1918], Lisbon 2018. See also Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro de: Anglo-Portuguese Relations on the Western Front: The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps and the British High Command, parts I and II, in: First World War Studies 8/2-3 (2017), pp. 173-204.
- Borges, João Vieira / Dias, Eurico José Gomes / Marques, Isabel Pestana (eds): Diário de Campanha General Fernando Tamagnini – Comandante do CEP [The campaign diary of General Fernando Tamagnini, CEP commander], Lisbon 2018.
- Lousada, Abilio Pires / Rocha, Jorge Silva (eds): Portugal na I Guerra Mundial: Uma História Militar Concisa, Lisbon 2018.
- de Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro: Portuguese Empire in Empires at War, in: Gerwarth, Robert / Manela, Erez: Empires at War, 1911-1923, Oxford 2014, pp. 179-196.
- Pires, Ana Paula / Rollo, Maria Fernanda: War and Empire: Portuguese East Africa and Economic Warfare (1914-1919), in: There came a Time…Essays on the Great War in Africa, Rickmansworth 2018, pp. 313-329.
- Rezendes, Sérgio: A Grande Guerra nos Açores. Património e Memória Militar, Casal de Cambra 2017; Rezendes, Sérgio: Depósito de Concentrados Alemães na ilha Terceira, a história de uma reclusão forçada 1916-1919, Casal de Cambra 2020.
- Pires, Ana Paula / Schmidt, Jan / Tato, María Inés: The Global First World War and its Aftermath, London Routledge 2021.
- e-Journal of Portuguese History 15/1 (June 2017), special issue: The Lusophone World at War, 1914-1918 and beyond.
- Afonso, Aniceto / Gomes, Carlos de Matos: Portugal e a Grande Guerra, 1914-1918 (Portugal and the Great War, 1914-1918), Matosinhos 2010: QuidNovi.
- Arrifes, Marco A.: Primeira Grande Guerra na África Portuguesa. Angola e Moçambique 1914-1918, Lisbon 2005: Edições Cosmos.
- Correia, Silvia: Entre a morte e o mito. Políticas da memória da I Guerra Mundial (1918-1933) (Between death and myth. Politics of memory of World War I in Portugal (1918-1933)), Lisbon 2015: Temas e Debates.
- Lousada, Abílio Pires / Rocha, Jorge Silva (eds.): Portugal na I Guerra Mundial. Uma história militar concisa, Lisbon 2018: Comissão Portuguesa de História Militar.
- Martins, Luis Augusto Ferreira: Portugal na Grande Guerra (Portugal in the Great War), Lisbon 1934: Editorial Ática.
- Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro de: Portugal 1914-1926. From the First World War to military dictatorship, Bristol 2004: Hiplam.
- Pélissier, René: Naissance du Mozambique. Résistance et révoltes anticoloniales (1854-1918), Orgeval 1984: Pelissier.
- Teixeira, Nuno Severiano: O poder e a guerra, 1914-1918. Objectivos nacionais e estratégias políticas na entrada de Portugal na Grande Guerra (Power and war, 1914-1918. National objectives and political strategies of Portugal’s participation in the Great War), Lisbon 1996: Editorial Estampa.
- Wheeler, Douglas L.: Republican Portugal. A political history, 1910-1926, Madison 1978: University of Wisconsin Press.