Themes Power

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

Survey Articles (Thematic)

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the history of Jews in Europe but also in the history of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • France and Germany remained principal protagonists of the First World War. This essay will examine the reasons why both nations believed they were in a legitimate war of defense, for which domestic unity was the indispensable precondition. The essay will … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By 1914 the leading states had succumbed to varying degrees of militarism, subordinating other interests to those of the armed forces, yet all were governed by regimes in which the ultimate authority rested with civilian leaders. Civilians led the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the First World War, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (called “Yugoslavia” from 1929) emerged as new national states on the territories of the crumbling Habsburg Empire. Pre-dating the establishment of the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The internment of enemy aliens in the First World War was a global phenomenon. Camps holding civilian as well as military prisoners could be found on every continent, including in nation-states and empires that had relatively liberal immigration policies … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage (France) to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that entered the First World War. This article explores the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • After an initial wave of interest in 1914 and the immediate post-war period, international historiography long neglected the wartime occupation of territories inhabited by large civilian populations. Recently, new research has focused on the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The idea of peace in total war may seem irrelevant, but pacifism, or peace activism, did exist during the First World War. A seemingly robust European peace movement existed before 1914, but it contained internal divisions and mostly collapsed early in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This paper examines major peace initiatives during World War I. It describes efforts by the chief European belligerents to split apart enemy coalitions with separate peace settlements as well attempts by the United States and socialist Russia to spark … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The conduct of warfare in 1914-1918 included extensive population resettlement in all theatres of war in Europe, both as a result of pre-emptive decisions by civilians to flee in order to evade the conflict or to avoid the consequences of occupation, and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article surveys the various movements toward social, national, and political revolution that emerged during and in the wake of World War I. The Russian revolutions of 1917 serve as the first case study, followed by the mutinies in France, and the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Despite what some believe, there is still a lot to say and learn about the First World War, particularly with regard to war aims. A lot of focus is currently placed on the cultural, social and psychological facets of the Great War, much more than on the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • It may surprise us to learn that some sectors of the European public were in favour of the war in 1914. The impact of modern weapons was not well understood and many people in the government, military and civilian population imagined that the conflict … READ MORE

    Thematic

Regional Thematic Articles

  • Civilians in the Australian government contended with two types of military power in the Great War: generals of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF), and British army military commanders and the War Office who had operational control of the AIF. In most … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • From 1916 to 1928, the Republic China was divided among military cliques in the regions of mainland China. Provincial military power holders, by proving the impotence of Beijing, undermined the efforts to centralize power and strengthened the forces of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The responsibilities of politicians and military leaders are defined in times of war. The president commands the armed forces, the government - subject to the representatives of the nation - is in charge of conducting the war and the military operations … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In Italy, as in the other European states involved in the First World War, the outbreak of hostilities saw extraordinary powers conferred upon the armed forces, so as to free them from the supervision of government and parliament. War legislation … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Like the Sino- and Russo-Japanese Wars, the First World War gave an enormous boost to Japanese military operations and authority. The Imperial Navy deployed for the first time to the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and the army … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The First World War required the most comprehensive mobilization of men and resources in the history of the empire. It transformed the Ottoman state into a more centralized, authoritarian, and nationalist entity. This article explores the impact of total … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In pre-war South East Europe, both civilian and military powers focused on the creation of independent national states and the reclamation of imperial ''irredenta''. This goal, aggressively pursued, created serious regional tension between imperial and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • During World War I, an unprecedented civil-military relationship developed among the U.S. government, its military, and civilian society. America struggled to find fair conscription policies despite class, ethnic, racial, and ideological differences. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal went to war in March 1916 with a government and an army that did not sit comfortably with each other. The young republican regime’s relationship with its armed forces was difficult despite its popularity among a small number of officers and a … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the mechanisms, results, and characteristics of the national mobilization in Russia in the conditions of the First World War. Moreover, it considers the forms of cooperation between the government and the public, the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • When World War I broke out, the military conquest of the countries located between China, Siam and the South China Sea had been over for two decades. Nonetheless, French rule in Indochina was not entirely established and the exploitation of economic … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The diplomacy of Portugal’s participation in the Great War was largely determined by the desire of elites to improve the international standing of the country, as well as by domestic factors related to the bitter quarrels of the republican … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite the official neutrality maintained by Spain throughout the First World War, the conflict had a considerable impact on that country’s internal politics. The political stances taken gave rise to a process that divided society into two opposing … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Neutrality is a fundamental problem in modern Swiss history and played a pivotal role in both world wars. During the Second World War the danger came from the outside, while during the First World War Switzerland was also threatened from within. From 1914 … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa shared an ambiguous constitutional relationship with Britain. The self-governing dominions were free to implement their own policies in matters of defence, but their limited … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Although a military failure, the 1916 rebellion transformed Ireland by destroying the possibility of a political settlement between Irish nationalists and the British state and by popularising a republican movement prepared to use violence to achieve … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Throughout the Great War, successive Spanish governments tried to advance traditional foreign policy claims – the annexation of Tangier, the return of Gibraltar and the possibility of intervening in Portugal – while at the same time facing the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Kingdom of the Netherlands upheld a foreign policy of strict neutrality during the First World War. That policy revolved around two main precepts: upholding the requirements associated with neutrality in international law (particularly the Hague … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In 1917, with tens of thousands of Canadian soldiers killed and wounded, the end of the war was nowhere in sight. As the supply of volunteers dried up, conscription became the dominant issue in Canada. French Canadians were singled out and accused of not … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Commonwealth of Australia, a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire, experienced splits during the Great War in the major parties of both the left and right. The Australian Labor Party, in 1914 the most successful social democratic party in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the shifting nature of Canadian federal politics during the First World War with an emphasis on conscription and the formation of the Union Government. The impact of these issues on national unity is examined, as is the deterioration … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • China’s attempt to participate in the European war was complicated by domestic turbulence. Japan’s bid for supremacy in China compelled President Yuan Shikai to propose the Twenty-one Demands in 1915, and after Yuan’s death, there were two … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite its weaknesses, the French parliamentary republic survived the First World War without compromising the constitutional laws that had been in place since 1875. The ''Union sacrée'' was formed on 4 August 1914. While this initially resulted in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the beginning of World War I, Germany was a constitutional monarchy in which political parties were limited to the legislative arena. They could control neither the government nor the military. At the end of the war, the political system had been … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Great War marked a period of profound upheaval in British politics. The old controversies of Edwardian politics were replaced by new debates about military strategy, civil-military relations and the capacity of the state to mobilize the nation for … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • During the period of neutrality, Italian public opinion was divided into two camps: one interventionist, and the other, in the majority, opposed to Italy’s entry into the war. Neutralism brought together the two most important political groupings in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite over 7,000 miles of separation from the Western Front, Imperial Japan underwent a political transformation during the First World War almost as dramatic as that in the vanquished capitals of Europe. As was the case with most belligerents, the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In South Africa the period between 1914 and 1918 was one of intense political and industrial turmoil. It entailed two violent strikes, eventually suppressed by the South African government, a rebellion against the state by Afrikaner insurgents and the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • New Zealand’s wartime parliament was dominated by a coalition between the two main parties, Reform and Liberal. Labour parliamentarians opposed the coalition and the war was a significant factor in the making of a new Labour … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Founded in October 1910, the Portuguese Republic was soon mired in turmoil. The victorious Portuguese Republican Party, in reality a broad ideological coalition united only by the desire to topple the monarchy, soon fragmented acrimoniously, first into a … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the beginning of World War I, Russian political parties found themselves in deep crisis. In contrast, the State Duma had become the epicenter of the country’s political life. The “Holy Alliance” established between the authorities and society was … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This essay analyzes domestic politics in the United States during World War I, focusing chiefly on the Wilson administration’s relations with Congress and on electoral politics from 1914 to 1918. Throughout this period, war-related issues became … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article seeks to analyze how the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the oldest existing humanitarian organization, coped with the outbreak of the First World and its aftermath. By using innovative methods of work and by deploying an … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Russian Civil War of 1917-20 was closely related to the World War in terms of its cause, conduct, and results. This article discusses the two distinct phases of the Civil War, which were divided by the collapse of the Central Powers. It examines the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the history of the Spanish army during the First World War in the context of the Spanish strategic and security situation. It shows the interrelation between Spanish military weakness and strategic insecurity. Particularly focusing … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Armistice agreement foresaw the occupation of the left bank of the Rhine, the dates of which were set by the Treaty of Versailles. The inter-allied occupation was a long-term endeavour: the French settled in the south and the Belgians in the north of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In 1914, Allied leaders plunged Africans into a conflict that was not their own. In West Africa, British and French colonial troops quickly occupied Togo, while the conquest of Cameroon proved much more difficult. A relatively short campaign led by white … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the politics of the German (''Generalgouvernement'' Warschau) and Austro-Hungarian (''Militärgeneralgouvernement'' Lublin) occupation of the Kingdom of Poland during World War One. Both occupation governments strove to exploit the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article studies Germany’s experiences of occupation during and immediately after the First World War. The first section examines the French attack on Alsace-Lorraine in August 1914 and the Russian invasions of East Prussia from August 1914 until … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The occupation of the Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire was essentially the by-product of the war, but it had been in the making for a long time. Despite their attempt to appear as liberators rather than occupiers, the British and, later, the French … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Memories of occupation by foreign forces are not usually articulated except when prisoners of war speak of their experiences when debriefed. These are usually shameful episodes in the lives of those who survived. Collaboration with the enemy often … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Occupation played a crucial role in Eastern Europe between 1914 and 1921: the highly mobile front allowed trenches to be shifted over hundreds of miles, resulting in the usurpation of foreign lands. While Russia only managed to occupy Habsburg Galicia and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The occupation of South East Europe 1915-1918 had a complex structure reflecting different and often conflicting territorial claims and goals. In the fall of 1915 Serbia was divided into Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian and German occupation zones. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the German occupation of Belgium and Northern France in 1914–1918. Besides focussing on the occupiers’ motives and logic of action regarding their policy and practices, it gives an idea of the complexity of the occupier/occupied … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • World War One represented a turning point in the relationship between churches and the Portuguese state. Both Catholics and Protestants perceived the conflict as an opportunity to expand their scope of influence in a society then dominated by a sector … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article charts the contours of the Great War as an American religious experience, focusing on the ways in which the study of religion and the Great War in America forces an examination of what is meant by “religion.” American clergy and American … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Great War helped to ease the Church-state tensions that had shaped French politics and society during the preceding generation. However, the very different context of the French colonial empire prevented a similar reconciliation overseas. This article … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Africans across the continent resisted colonial demands and took up arms against European colonizers during World War I. This essay presents three ways of recognizing and analyzing such acts of resistance. First, many Africans refused increased colonial … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Revolutionary movements in India haunted the imagination of post-war British officialdom. They were used in the aftermath of the First World War to justify everything from colonial massacres to the indefinite censorship of the press. But what were these … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The following pages - focusing on the collapse of the Habsburg Empire and the incidents in Austria in 1918/20 - are subdivided into four different periods and aspects: Firstly, World War One until the increasing protest movements of 1917/18, secondly, … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article discusses the influence the Russian Revolution had on countries in East Central Europe. In the Polish Kingdom and Lithuania there was no direct impact because of the German occupation. The parties which sympathized with the Bolsheviks had no … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article focuses on the upheaval between 1917 and 1923. These years were marked by crumbling empires, national mobilisation, and conflicting ideologies and forms of government. Rather than single out specific revolutionary or counter-revolutionary … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal’s participation in the First World War, never consensual, was marked by a number of violent episodes that first undermined and then overthrew the Sacred Union government. Some of these were rural and urban mutinies occasioned by inflation and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Russian Revolution was one of the most influential events to emerge from the furnace of the First World War. It transformed Russia and its Empire and firmly planted the flag of world revolution at the centre of 20th century world history. … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • From the outbreak of World War I, Woodrow Wilson pursued two goals: a non-punitive peace settlement to end the conflict and a reformation of world politics through an international peace-keeping organization to prevent such wars in the future. Before the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The First World War led to a renewed imperialist scramble for territory in Africa. Allied victory and African campaigns allowed British, French, Belgian, Portuguese and South African leaders to acquire Germany’s colonies. Their wartime colonial aims … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Although Britain declared war on the Dominions’ behalf, Australia had its own war aims. The most important of these was the survival of the British Empire, which the vast majority of Australians believed was key to the country's cultural identity and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In July 1914 the Habsburg monarchy went to war with Serbia declaring it sought no territorial gain from the struggle. Soon discussions of possible territorial acquisitions, along with economic and political aims, started among the governing elite and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Already in autumn 1914, East Central Europe became a main theatre of operational warfare and an object of strategic planning for the Central Powers, Russia, and later the Entente. After strategic failure in the West, Germany focused on this region as an … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • On 4 August 1914, in his first speech after the declaration of war, Raymond Poincaré, president of the French Republic, did not outline any aims other than the ''Union sacrée'' (sacred union) and the defence of the country’s borders. Once the hopes … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the outbreak of the First World War, Italian diplomacy did not have a clear vision of the goals to be achieved. Therefore, in negotiations with the countries already involved in the conflict, excessive territorial claims were made. The errors of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal’s wartime governments never formulated a concrete set of war aims. The nature of the country’s intervention did not lend itself to this kind of debate. With a long-defined border with Spain, and more colonial territory than it could … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article offers a survey of the main currents in South East Europe in regard to the war aims of the belligerents from 1914. Some war aims had deep roots in the pre-war years. The author puts emphasis on the emerging Yugoslav state in the Balkans. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic

Encyclopedic Entries

  • On 25 May 1915, Argentina’s, Brazil’s and Chile’s ministers of foreign affairs signed a treaty to facilitate the peaceful solution of international controversies in Buenos Aires. Mired in diplomatic discussions for more than ten years, this treaty, … READ MORE

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  • A minority of the adherents of the Flemish movement were willing to collaborate with the German occupier in the context of ''Flamenpolitik''. This minority labelled themselves “activists”, stressing their dislike of the Belgian patriotic … READ MORE

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  • Until his death in 1918, Victor Adler was the most prominent Austrian socialist leader and among the leading personalities of the Second Socialist International. During the war, he aimed to preserve Austrian Social Democracy’s impressive prewar gains … READ MORE

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  • Ador was the third president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a Swiss minister during WWI. He displayed the charisma, the diplomatic skills and the decisiveness necessary to give the ICRC a crucial role in the protection of … READ MORE

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  • Albert I, the third king of the Belgians, played a leading role as supreme commander of the Belgian army during the First World War. For four years he defended the last piece of unoccupied Belgium behind the Yser River, refusing to sacrifice his troops in … READ MORE

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  • Albrecht Duke of Württemberg was the commander-in-chief of the German 4th Army from 1914-1917 and the ''"Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht"'' ("Army Group Duke Albrecht") from 1917-1918. The 4th Army fought under Duke Albrecht’s … READ MORE

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  • Umar al-Da’uq was a merchant and notable of Beirut in the late Ottoman period. He was Mayor of Beirut during WWI and participated in his official and private capacities in the famine relief efforts. He became president of the short-lived Arab government … READ MORE

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  • Born Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, Aleksandra Fedorovna married the future Russian Emperor Nicholas II in 1894 and became empress. She was engaged in charity work and served as a nurse during the First World War. However, she was suspected of treason and … READ MORE

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  • Alfonso XIII was a controversial Spanish king during the first decades of the 20th century. During the First World War he established a humanitarian office for prisoners and civilian relief at the Royal Palace in … READ MORE

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  • The diffusion of anarchism in Latin America, which began in the 1870s, was boosted by large migration flows. Between 1890 and 1920, anarchism was an essential element in the process of workers’ self-organization. Opposition to the war characterized the … READ MORE

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  • A short lived agency, the Arab Bureau (1916-1920), was ostensibly established to co-ordinate British wartime policy in the Near East, track the regional direction of Turco-German activity and disseminate propaganda among Indian Muslims. In fact, its … READ MORE

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  • There were a number of Arab intellectuals who actively cooperated with the Entente and Central Powers during the Great War through their actions, writings and speeches. The entry focuses on the actions of Shakib Arslan, Muhammed Kurd Ali and the al-Khatib … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, Arnold J. Toynbee, as a member of the Political Intelligence Department, was charged with preparing analyses on the Middle East for the Paris Peace Conference. The global war was pivotal for the elaboration of his philosophy of … READ MORE

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  • Asquith was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the outbreak of war. He formed a coalition in May 1915 but accusations of ineffectiveness led to his replacement by David Lloyd George in December 1916. He remained out of office and subsequently lost … READ MORE

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  • The Republic of Azerbaijan is a majority Turkic and secular Muslim nation in the South Caucasus. This republic was proclaimed on 28 May 1918, during World War I. The Bolshevik invasion on 27 April 1920 ended Azerbaijan’s brief independence. The nation … READ MORE

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  • A lawyer, Progressive, and pacifist, Newton Baker was U.S. Secretary of War during World War I. He oversaw a massive mobilization that relied on a sweeping draft law and cooperation between government officials, business elites, and reformers. Baker’s … READ MORE

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  • Arthur James Balfour was a British Conservative politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and was later Foreign Secretary. In the latter post, he issued the Balfour Declaration of 1917 on behalf of the British government, … READ MORE

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  • The Imperial and Royal Ministry of the Imperial and Royal House and of Foreign Affairs, informally called “Ballhausplatz” after the Viennese square on which the central office was located, was one of only three joint ministries of Austria-Hungary. … READ MORE

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  • Cesare Battisti was the leader of the socialist party of the Italian Tirol (Trentino) and, from 1911, a member of the Austrian parliament. At the outbreak of war he went to Italy to engage in pro-intervention propaganda. In 1915 he joined the Italian … READ MORE

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  • Max Bauer was a German artillery expert and a key suborndinate in the German Supreme Command. A loyal suporter of Ludendorff, Bauer intrigued against Falkenhayn and consistently pushed for the further militarisation of German everyday life. He played a … READ MORE

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  • Otto Bauer was a leading Austro-Marxist and socialist politician who served during the war as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army. After returning from Russian internment to Vienna in 1917, he joined the Leftist opposition within the Social Democratic … READ MORE

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  • Gertrud Bäumer was one of the most well known leaders of the German women’s movement. In 1914, as the president of the Federation of German Women’s Associations (''Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine'', BDF), she co-founded the National Women’s Service … READ MORE

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  • Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was a Dutch Prime Minster who successfully dealt with the threat of revolution in November … READ MORE

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  • Edvard Beneš was a Czech politician, diplomat, and close collaborator of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. As Secretary General of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris from 1916 to 1918, he successfully organized Czechoslovak propaganda; helped create the … READ MORE

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  • Leopold Graf Berchtold, Habsburg foreign minister from 1912 to 1915, was confronted with military action during and after the Balkan Wars, yet kept peace. Then, the Sarajevo assassinations, blamed on Serbia, convinced him that only war with Serbia would … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, Berlin became an organisational hub for Indian nationalist and revolutionary activities. By September 1914, a group of South Asian emigrants had organized – with permission of and in cooperation with the German Foreign Office … READ MORE

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  • Count Bernstorff was German ambassador to the United States from 1908 to 1917. He tried in vain to warn the Reich government against unrestricted submarine warfare which would result in America’s entry into the … READ MORE

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  • Hans Hartwig von Beseler was a German general and military engineer who oversaw the conquest of several fortresses early in the war. He was then named commander of German-occupied Poland, a post he held until the end of the … READ MORE

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  • Bethmann was a career civil servant who became Imperial Germany’s fifth Reich Chancellor and took Germany into the First World War. Despite heading the imperial German political administration, his power was circumscribed by the role of Kaiser Wilhelm … READ MORE

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  • Louise de Bettignies created an intelligence network for the British in occupied France. She was arrested, sentenced to death in March 1916 and deported to the prison of Siegburg. Sick, she died in Cologne in September 1918, and was commemorated … READ MORE

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  • Moritz von Bissing was born on 30 January 1844, in Bellmannsdorf, Silesia, then part of the German Empire. He served as governor general of the Prussian Army from December 1914 until his death on 18 April 1917 in Trois Fontaines, a village in … READ MORE

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  • This article looks at the Black Hand from its origins to the demise of its leader, Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis", in the Salonika Trial of 1917, focussing on the role the association played in Serbia’s foreign and domestic affairs before and during the … READ MORE

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  • Howard Sweetser Bliss was the President of the Syrian Protestant College (SPC) during the war. His congenial relationship with Jamal Pasha helped to ensure the security of the college and American community throughout the war. At the Paris Peace … READ MORE

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  • Jan Bloch was an entrepreneur, social activist and pacifist. At the end of his life, he published a comprehensive work in which he predicted the course and consequences of World War I. He warned of the dangers of a total, destructive war and urged … READ MORE

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  • Bonar Law was leader of the Conservative Party in Britain during the war. He entered Asquith’s coalition government in May 1915, and in December 1916 played a crucial role in Lloyd George becoming Prime Minister. For the rest of the war, he was a key … READ MORE

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  • The borders of the Netherlands were an important site of war experience for the Dutch, as well as a contested site of war interaction for the … READ MORE

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  • As a Flemish nationalist, August Borms actively collaborated with the Germans during the First World War. As a result of his ten-year imprisonment and his death sentence he became a true symbol of Flemish … READ MORE

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  • In the narrow sense, the so-called “Bosnian Crisis” (or “Annexation Crisis”) of 1908 and 1909 was a political conflict between Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire caused by the (formal) incorporation of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the territory … READ MORE

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  • Venceslau Brás was president of Brazil between 1914 and 1918. On 26 October 1917, he signed the Brazilian declaration of war against … READ MORE

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  • Liberal Prime Minister Ionel Brătianu led the charge to transform Romania's foreign policy, after three decades on the same side with the Triple … READ MORE

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  • Brazil was the only South American country that participated actively in the First World War. Before the war, the country was economically dependent on European and North American markets and modelled itself on Western culture and science. After the war, … READ MORE

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  • At Brest-Litovsk, from 22 December 1917 to 10 February 1918 (Julian calendar: 9 December − 28 January), Soviet representatives and the Central Powers negotiated a separate peace. On 3 March 1918, following the breakdown of the talks and a new German … READ MORE

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  • As an imperial diplomat, first Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic, leader of the German Peace Delegation in Versailles and also first ambassador to the Soviet Union, he acted in decisive positions in pre- and post-war German foreign policy. His … READ MORE

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  • Charles de Broqueville, chief of the Belgian government during the First World War, acted as liaison between the king and the Belgian government. He supported the king in his attempts to obtain peace and his efforts to break free from the … READ MORE

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  • The Belgian capital was spared the anguish of combat, but the city suffered four long years of occupation. In fact, it became the most important occupied city during the First World War. For the population, these were times of scarcity, repression, and … READ MORE

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  • Williams Jennings Bryan was a powerful Democratic politician, from his emergence on the American political scene in the 1890s to his death in 1925. A three-time Democratic nominee for president, Bryan served as secretary of state under President Woodrow … READ MORE

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  • During his career as a diplomat and courtier (knighted count in 1899 and prince in 1905), Bernhard von Bülow became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (after 1897) and German Chancellor (1900-1909). He hoped to attain a “place at the sun” for his … READ MORE

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  • István Burián was a leading Austro-Hungarian career diplomat and politician, rising to become the Monarchy’s longest-serving foreign minister during the First World War. Burián’s wartime policies included trying to pacify neighboring neutrals and … READ MORE

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  • Minister plenipotentiary for England in Lisbon, there was consensus about Lancelot Carnegie as a diplomat in Portuguese public opinion. He was recognized as one of the people responsible for the consolidation of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. With the … READ MORE

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  • For three decades Romania’s foreign policy depended almost entirely upon King Carol I’s will. The secret alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was his sole political project. His death, which occurred shortly after the outbreak of the First World … READ MORE

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  • Following a career as British consul and humanitarian investigator, Roger Casement became involved in the Irish nationalist movement and the Irish Volunteers. On the outbreak of war, he sought help in Germany for Irish independence. On learning of the … READ MORE

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  • Cemal Paşa belonged to the top leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He served as wartime minister of the navy and autocratic governor general and commander of the Fourth Army in … READ MORE

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  • In his youth, the archduke was introduced to the idea of federalism by Archduke Franz Ferdinand. During the first part of World War I, he became a skillful military leader without any political influence. The young emperor’s two main aims, the reform of … READ MORE

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  • Churchill was Navy Minister during the early stages of the war but was widely criticized over his handling of the Dardanelles campaign. He was demoted and soon afterwards resigned from the government in order to serve on the Western Front. He quickly … READ MORE

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  • World War I had a profound impact on concepts of citizenship. Not only did hosts of people find themselves under new sovereignty at the end of the war, but many individuals had to contend with the experience of statelessness or redefinition as “enemy … READ MORE

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  • Count Heinrich Karl Clam-Martinic was a German-speaking Bohemian high aristocrat and close friend to heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Under Emperor and King Charles I, Clam-Martinic was Austrian (Cisleithanian) prime minister from 1916 to 1917 and … READ MORE

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  • During the war, Georges Clemenceau fought for a more efficient war effort and for parliamentary control of military affairs and, as a journalist, rejected unlimited censorship. As French premier, he embodied the “integral war” and the struggle for … READ MORE

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  • Collaboration is often associated with the military occupations of the Second World War, but there was a precursor to this multi-faceted phenomenon in occupied France and Belgium during the First World War. This article examines the meaning of … READ MORE

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  • Michael Collins was a revolutionary leader who rose to become chairman of the Irish provisional government in 1922 and Commander-in-chief of its army in the brief interval that supervened before his death the same year. He sought to use violence in a … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Naumann’s ''Mitteleuropa'' (1915) was a liberal voice in the largely illiberal German discussion on the future of East Central and South East Europe. His reasoning, based on principles of free trade and voluntary cooperation, did not dominate … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, many conscription age-men sought exemptions from combat duty for reasons of conscience. Religious beliefs formed the large majority of objections, but other reasons included humanitarian and political opposition to the war. While most … READ MORE

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  • King Constantine I, a brave army officer but rather controversial in his political choices, is mainly known for his strong disagreement with Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos over the role of Greece in World War I, which resulted in the painful … READ MORE

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  • The Corfu Declaration was a formal agreement between the government-in-exile of the kingdom of Serbia and the Yugoslav Committee (anti-Habsburg South Slav émigrés) that pledged to unify Serbia with Austria-Hungary’s South Slav territories in a … READ MORE

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  • George Creel is most famous as Chairman of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) in the United States during the First World War. Under his leadership, the CPI pioneered public relations and propaganda techniques that were later used both by … READ MORE

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  • Ottokar Graf Czernin was an Austrian politician and the minister of foreign affairs for Austria-Hungary from 1916 to … READ MORE

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  • Josephus Daniels was United States secretary of the Navy from 1913–1921. He democratized, expanded, and modernized the United States Navy, preparing it for service in the First World War. During the war Daniels championed the North Sea mining barrage … READ MORE

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  • Har Dayal was one of the chief architects of a quixotically sketched blueprint to effect a republican-socialist revolution in British India during the First World … READ MORE

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  • As a socialist, Eugene Debs unsuccessfully ran for president four times. He served two prison sentences: the first due to his role in the Pullman Strike in 1894, and the second after being indicted under the Espionage Act as result of his criticism of … READ MORE

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  • Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, Lenin issued his Decree on Peace, calling for a truce and demanding that peace be agreed upon by people’s assemblies to be convened across Europe. There was no popular European uprising, however, … READ MORE

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  • A local notable and mayor of Lille during the occupation, Charles Delesalle was forced to work with the Germans but also sought to protect the population as best as possible. In particular, he played an important role in food provision, overseeing … READ MORE

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  • De Valera was a prominent figure in the Easter 1916 rebellion against British rule. He subsequently became head of the Irish … READ MORE

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  • Roman Stanisław Dmowski was a Polish politician and most importantly the co-founder of National Democracy in Poland before the First World War and during the interwar period. He was also the co-founder of Polish National Committee in 1917 and served as … READ MORE

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  • In February 1917 two centres of power emerged to replace the tsarist government: the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet. The Provisional Government had formal authority but the Soviet controlled the actual levers of power, including the … READ MORE

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  • W.E.B. Du Bois, sociologist, historian, and socialist, promoted African American advancement and expected the war to improve the position of nonwhite minorities in the United States and globally. He was the editor of the NAACP magazine, which protested … READ MORE

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  • The Tsar reluctantly granted an elected legislative assembly, the State Duma, during the 1905 Russian Revolution. The first two Dumas were dissolved amidst bitter conflict and the third did little to resolve Russia’s pressing social and economic issues. … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Ebert became the most important leader of the SPD during the First World War, alongside Philipp Scheidemann. During the revolution, Ebert rose to the top position within party hierarchy and drew Germany towards parliamentary democracy, first as … READ MORE

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  • Queen Elisabeth was the third queen of the Belgians. Her attitude during the First World War propelled her to the mythic rank of "Queen … READ MORE

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  • After leading the coup that brought the Committee of Union and Progress to power, Enver was appointed chief of staff and war minister. Convinced of a German victory, he decided to join World War One. In November 1918, he fled to Germany and then to … READ MORE

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  • As a Member of Parliament 1917, Erzberger, the former annexationist, played an important role in drafting the Reichstag’s Peace Resolution and the setting up of the ''Interfraktioneller Ausschuss'' (Interparty Committee). As secretary of state of the … READ MORE

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  • Paul Eyschen, prime minister of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg from 1888 to 1915, insisted on the neutral status of Luxembourg, but practiced a policy of accommodation towards German occupying forces during the war. This policy was disapproved of by the … READ MORE

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  • Faysal ibn Husayn commanded the Northern Army of the Arab Revolt and was raised to the throne of Syria in October 1918. The French invasion drove him from Damascus in April 1921. Made king of Iraq under British tutelage, Faysal guided the country to … READ MORE

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  • Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria undoubtedly contributed to the modernization of the country. His name, however, is linked to two national catastrophes: Bulgaria’s participation in the Second Balkan War, and the failure of Bulgarian national ideals during … READ MORE

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  • Abel Ferry was a French politician and minister as well as an infantry combatant, who used his first-hand knowledge of the war to try and shape the official war effort. He died as a result of his parliamentary inquiries at the front. His diaries and … READ MORE

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  • The German ''Flamenpolitik'' during the First World War aimed to instrumentalise the Flemish movement in order to ensure lasting German control over Belgium. It did not divide the Belgian or even Flemish population as a whole, but managed to split the … READ MORE

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  • The First World War engendered a rift within the Flemish movement, with some wishing to pursue the advocacy for Flemish rights and others preferring to await the end of the war to obtain new laws. After the war, the Flemish movement broadened its base and … READ MORE

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  • The Fourteen Points were U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s post World War I blueprint to end territorial disputes in Europe, promote international commerce, and make the world safe for democracy. They were based on the ideas of open trade and collective … READ MORE

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  • Under the terms of the 1867 constitution, Francis Joseph retained his prerogatives in foreign policy. His decision to opt for war in 1914 was largely a result of the frustrations of Austria’s policy during the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. Francis Joseph … READ MORE

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  • Ludwig Frank was a member of the Reichstag for the Social Democratic Party. When Germany entered the war, he strongly supported voting for war loans and volunteered for war service at the age of forty. He was killed in combat shortly afterwards in … READ MORE

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  • This biographical overview of Archduke Franz Ferdinand examines the evolution of his difficult personality through the traumatic experiences of barely surviving tuberculosis and fighting for the right to marry; his political orientation and imperial … READ MORE

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  • “Freedom of the seas” was the early 20th century idea that the world’s oceans served as a global commons for carrying cargo and facilitating commerce. As both a communal property and throughway, the seas thus could not be controlled by … READ MORE

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  • Juozas Gabrys was one of the major advocates of Lithuanian political aspirations in the international arena from 1911 to 1918. He contributed to the establishment of the Council of Lithuania in 1917. However, by acting mainly abroad, he gradually lost … READ MORE

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  • General Joseph-Simon Gallieni was a colonial officer who became the Governor of Paris in 1914 and Minister of War in … READ MORE

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  • Arnaldo Garcez was the only official photographer of the Portuguese army on the Western Front, a fact that hints at the importance of his mission. Arriving in France in 1917, he thoroughly reported on a specific sector amidst the British lines, from the … READ MORE

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  • Harry Garfield worked in a number of civic positions during his life. When the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow Wilson asked him to oversee the Fuel Administration. As the leader of the Fuel Administration, Garfield successfully … READ MORE

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  • Lindley Garrison was a prominent lawyer and politician from New Jersey who rose to the rank of vice chancellor of the state in the early 1910s. Because of his prominence, Woodrow Wilson selected him to be his first secretary of war. However, the two … READ MORE

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  • Eric Geddes was the most prominent example of Britain’s deployment of businessmen in government. He was the driving force behind the reorganization of the British Expeditionary Force’s (BEF) logistics on the Western Front and the political head of the … READ MORE

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  • After the German Army had occupied wide areas of Belgium, the “Imperial Government General in Belgium” was established on 23 August 1914 with a governor-general at its head. Organized into a military administration (the “Government General”) and a … READ MORE

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  • In 1915, Germany set up the “''Generalgouvernement'' Warschau”, or General Governorate Warsaw, as the administrative unit for its occupied territories in Russian Poland. Under the leadership of Governor General Hans von Beseler and Wolfgang von Kries, … READ MORE

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  • The ''Große Hauptquartier'' (Great Headquarters or GHQ) was the strategic command centre of the German armed forces for the duration of the war. It comprised representatives of all political and military decision-making … READ MORE

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  • The German Fatherland Party (1917-1918/1919) aspired to mobilize members of the broader radical right as well as the milieus of the German Conservative Party and the National Liberal Party. It aimed to gather broad support for the annexationist War Aims … READ MORE

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  • German-speaking elites in Brazil were traditionally in contact with German colonial actors, and during World War I, many middle-class immigrants sympathized with Germany. This led to a conflict within Brazilian society, where people predominantly sided … READ MORE

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  • Germany’s offer of unconditional support to its Austro-Hungarian ally in July 1914 remains one of the most controversial decisions in modern history. Historians have interpreted the blank cheque in several, often contradictory, ways – either as a … READ MORE

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  • Although sometimes characterized as a quixotically hatched scheme to overthrow British rule in India, the Ghadar “conspiracy” is best understood as a failed bid to foment a democratic revolution in India in the midst of the First World War. The … READ MORE

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  • Colmar von der Goltz was one of pre-war Germany’s most outstanding and controversial military theoreticians. His publications had a considerable impact on military thought and the role of armed forces within society around the world. His ideas were … READ MORE

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  • Thomas Watt Gregory served as Attorney General of the United States during World War I. He played a key role in developing the Espionage and Sedition Acts to suppress dissent during World War I and enforcing Selective Service draft laws. He served as an … READ MORE

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  • Grey was the longest-serving British foreign secretary of the 20th century. His time in office is controversial for his role in the outbreak of the First World … READ MORE

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  • Grigorovich was Navy Minister between 1911 and 1917. He sought cooperation with parliament and secured funds to rebuild fleets ravaged by war with Japan. His support for mobilisation in 1914 helped push Russia into a conflict for which the navy was … READ MORE

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  • Robert Grimm was the most powerful socialist politician in Switzerland throughout the first half of the 20th century. As the organiser of the Zimmerwald and Kiental Conferences, he was one of the prominent figures of the international socialist … READ MORE

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  • As head of the Railway Section at the General Staff, Groener was responsible for the timely transport of troops to the front in August 1914. He was sacked from the Supreme Army Command (''Oberste Heeresleitung'', OHL) in August 1917 and deployed to the … READ MORE

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  • İsmail Hakkı was an experienced civil servant. He collected and published detailed statistics on the population, economic activities, education, natural resources and means of transportation in his provinces, and attempted relief efforts to alleviate … READ MORE

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  • Liberal Secretary of State for War 1905-1912. Haldane’s reforms of the British Regular Army and its auxiliaries were instrumental in ensuring that Britain could dispatch an expeditionary force to assist the Belgians and French in August … READ MORE

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  • Maurice Hankey was responsible for adapting the British government’s administrative machinery to the needs of modern war. He became an influential behind-the-scenes adviser to British prime ministers during the … READ MORE

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  • Georg von Hertling was the chancellor of Germany from 1 November 1917 to 3 October … READ MORE

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  • Paul von Hindenburg shot to fame after the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914. He was Germany’s national hero of wartime, soon eclipsing the Kaiser. Appointed to the Supreme Command in 1916, he increasingly took on a political role. His myth survived … READ MORE

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  • After the First World War, Hitler created a mythical account of his war years for political gain. This account was a far cry from the realities of his war experience on the Western … READ MORE

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  • After working first as a lawyer and legal scholar, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. accepted positions on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts and the United States Supreme Court. As a Supreme Court justice Holmes wrote opinions that shaped the debate on … READ MORE

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  • Herbert Hoover obtained political prominence during World War I through his roles as chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Belgium (CRB) and the U.S. Food Administration. Following the war, Hoover served as head of the American Relief Association … READ MORE

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  • Horthy was a naval officer of Austria-Hungary. During the First World War he was first in command of a cruiser and then chief commander of the navy. After the war he took part in the counter-revolution in Hungary against the Bolshevik regime; following … READ MORE

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  • Edward House was an advisor to President Woodrow Wilson. He aided Wilson in diplomatic matters and in crafting the Fourteen Points that became the framework for the League of … READ MORE

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  • Elias Hoyek was Patriarch of Antioch for the Maronites. He is considered to be one of the fathers of Lebanonism, a symbol of resistance against Ottoman hegemony, and the founder of Lebanese … READ MORE

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  • Husayn ibn Ali launched the Arab Revolt in alliance with Great Britain. His relations with his European allies remained uneasy and deteriorated further when a unified Arab state under his rule failed to materialize after the war. Ibn Sa‘ud’s conquest … READ MORE

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  • The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence mapped out with studied ambiguity the terms of the wartime alliance between Great Britain and Hashemites that underpinned the Great Arab Revolt (July 1916-October 1918) against Ottoman … READ MORE

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  • Italy entered the First World War in May 1915, roughly ten months after it began. During those ten months, the battle of opinions for and against intervention raged on. Public meetings, demonstrations, and street clashes that occasionally left partisans … READ MORE

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  • A Romanian politician, Dumitru Ionescu, commonly known as Take Ionescu, was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the most erudite statesmen in Eastern Europe. He was one of the main politicians who manoeuvred Romania’s entrance into the First … READ MORE

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  • The campaign for Irish Home Rule lasted from 1870 until 1914. When Home Rule became a realistic possibility in 1912, a period of political turmoil ensued. Parliamentary solutions to the impasse were overtaken by the emergence of rival armed paramilitary … READ MORE

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  • Gottlieb von Jagow was a German diplomat. He served as the German Foreign Secretary from January 1913 to November … READ MORE

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  • A philosopher, historian, and journalist (creator of'' L’Humanité''), Jean Jaurès defended the socialist program for workers and small farmers in the Chamber of Deputies and throughout France. Within the Second International, an organisation of … READ MORE

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  • Bishop Jeglič was one of the most prominent Slovenian Church figures in the era leading up to the outbreak of the First World War. His political actions during the war decisively shaped the people’s perspective on the Habsburg Monarchy and had an … READ MORE

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  • In October 1916, the Prussian War Ministry conducted the ''Judenzählung'', also referred to as the “Jew Count” or “''Judenstatistik'',” a census of Jewish soldiers serving in the German army. The ''Judenzählung'' operated on unfounded … READ MORE

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  • In July 1917, economic chaos and unpopular preparations for military action provoked armed demonstrations by workers and troops demanding the Petrograd Soviet take power from Russia’s Provisional Government. The uprising failed and reprisals were … READ MORE

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  • Peter I Karadjordjević was King of Serbia from 1903 to 1918, and King of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from 1918 to 1921. He also translated the essay “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) into … READ MORE

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  • Aleksandr Kerenskii was Minister of War in Russia’s Provisional Government from April to October 1917 and Prime Minister from July to October. He embodied the hopes of the February Revolution of 1917, the doomed military offensive of June 1917, and the … READ MORE

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  • The "khaki" general election of 1918 was held in Great Britain almost immediately after the Armistice. It was the first held under what was almost universal adult suffrage. The result was a crushing victory for a coalition comprised of Liberals supporting … READ MORE

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  • The King’s African Rifles (KAR) were the British colonial military within East Africa before and during the First World War. While initially rarely involved in the British operations in East Africa, the continued resistance of the German … READ MORE

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  • Aleksandr Vasil'evich Kolchak was a Russian admiral and political figure. He participated in the Russo-Japanese War, the First World War, and the Russian Civil War. He was one of the leaders of the White movement in eastern Russia and was proclaimed … READ MORE

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  • Béla Kun was a Hungarian communist politician. He began his career as a social democrat. During the First World War he was captured by the Russians and later became a Bolshevik in Russia. From 1918 onward, he filled significant positions in the … READ MORE

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  • La Dame Blanche was an intelligence network created in Belgium in 1916. It was essentially devoted to the observation of railways. At the end of the war, it was comprised of over 1,000 agents and covered a large part of the occupied … READ MORE

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  • Johan Laidoner, Estonian general and statesman, started his career in the Russian army during World War I. He was crucial in establishing an Estonian army, which he commanded in the War of Independence (1918-20). In 1934 he participated in a coup … READ MORE

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  • Robert Lansing served as U.S. Secretary of State from June 1915 until February 1920. A career lawyer, Lansing was a leading proponent of “benevolent neutrality” in the years before the United States entered the war. He also served as a member of the … READ MORE

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  • T.E. Lawrence’s exploits during the Arab Revolt have acquired mythical status, making it difficult to distinguish between what he actually achieved and what was the product of his overactive imagination. Less contested is his role in brokering the … READ MORE

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  • In 1921 and 1922 the highest German court, the ''Reichsgericht'' in Leipzig, under pressure from the Allied powers, put seventeen Germans on trial for suspected war crimes in twelve trials. The trials and their results were criticized in both Germany and … READ MORE

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  • Vladimir Il’ich Lenin was the founder and leader of the Bolshevik Party and of the Soviet state up until his death. Theoretically and practically he combined the strategy of a socialist revolution with imperialism and war. After thus successfully … READ MORE

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  • Karl Liebknecht was the leading German socialist opponent of the First World War. He was the first member of parliament to vote against the financing of the war. On 1 May 1916 he was arrested and imprisoned for giving an anti-war speech in central Berlin. … READ MORE

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  • Lloyd George was a leading Liberal politician before World War I, who went on to play a central role in the United Kingdom’s war effort as Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915), Minister of Munitions (1915-1916), Secretary of State for War (1916) and … READ MORE

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  • Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican senator from Massachusetts. Close friend to Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge supported imperialist endeavors and favored military preparedness following the outbreak of World War I. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations … READ MORE

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  • Named after the German ''chargé d’affaires'' in Buenos Aires, Count Karl von Luxburg, the Luxburg Affair was the diplomatic issue that brought Germany and Argentina to the brink of war in … READ MORE

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  • Ramsay MacDonald opposed British entry into the European conflict in 1914. Although often represented as anti-war, he subsequently supported the Allied cause. He criticised balance of power diplomacy in the hands of a cloistered elite. Despite tensions, … READ MORE

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  • Macedonia was one of the main battlefields on the Balkan Front during World War I. The article describes the pre-war activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), its role in the Bulgarian occupation regime, and the fall of the … READ MORE

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  • Nestor Makhno was a commander of peasant insurgents who fought the Bolsheviks, Whites and Ukrainian nationalists in the South East of present-day Ukraine. His espousal of anarchism has won him supporters among many Western anarchists, but some historians … READ MORE

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  • French Interior Minister when the war was declared, Louis Malvy embodied the Union sacrée and the quest for social peace. In 1917, he was accused of treason and involved in a political scandal that led to the fall of the … READ MORE

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  • A Finnish aristocrat, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim served as cavalry commander in the Imperial Russian army during the First World War. After the Russian Revolution, he commanded Finnish White forces in the Finnish Civil War of 1918. He served as the Head … READ MORE

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  • Marie Adelheid reigned from 1912 to 1919 as the Grand-Duchess of Luxembourg. Because of her friendly attitude towards the German occupying forces during World War I, the Luxembourgers and Allies accused her of sympathizing with the Germans. Failing to … READ MORE

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  • The ''Marinegebiet'' on the Belgian coast was the Imperial German Navy’s base for attritional warfare against Entente shipping in the North Sea. The resulting occupation regime was particularly harsh on civilians; their plight was compounded by British … READ MORE

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  • Martial law refers to the exercise of governmental power over the civilian population by military authorities. The use of martial law varied among belligerent countries, and its geographical scope and material extent changed over the course of the war. … READ MORE

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  • The notion of “martial races” was formally developed and codified in the wake of the Indian Uprising of 1857 and became an important basis for the recruitment policy of the Indian Army. Constantly manipulated and adapted to changing political and … READ MORE

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  • The terms "martyrs" and "separatists" refer to the decentralist Arabists of Syria who were executed by Cemal Pasha during World War I as a result of their alleged plot to separate the Syrian land from the Ottoman … READ MORE

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  • Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was a Czech politician who started the Czechoslovak independence movement abroad. As head of the Czechoslovak National Council from 1916 to 1918, he provided an ideological basis for Czechoslovak propaganda, helped create the … READ MORE

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  • Mata Hari was a famous Dutch female dancer, who spied in France for the German intelligence during the war. Arrested by the French, she was condemned to death and executed in October … READ MORE

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  • Adolphe Max, the mayor of Brussels, was known for his peaceful resistance against the Germans and his resulting jail-time. He was considered by the Belgian public as a hero of the Great … READ MORE

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  • For many years Prince Maximilian of Baden was portrayed as a positive figure in German history - the liberal Chancellor who in 1918 helped to turn Germany into a republic. This view has been considerably altered by recent scholarship, including letters … READ MORE

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  • William G. McAdoo was an American politician and businessman. During World War I, he served as Secretary of the Treasury and director of the US Railroad Administration. In these positions he was the architect of the USA's wartime financial planning and … READ MORE

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  • Ioannis Metaxas was a conservative army officer and politician, who influenced decision-making in Greece during World War I by collaborating with King Constantine I. In 1936 he became head of an oppressive dictatorial regime and in 1940 he was responsible … READ MORE

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  • It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its … READ MORE

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  • Georg Michaelis is usually portrayed as the politically failed chancellor of 1917. His resignation after fourteen weeks in office was the first overthrow of a Reich chancellor initiated by Reichstag political parties. Before he was appointed chancellor, … READ MORE

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  • Japanese interest in expansion into the South Pacific began in the 1870s. World War I provided a long sought after chance for the Japanese Imperial Navy to enhance its standing and gain a strategically important base. Japanese claims to the South Sea … READ MORE

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  • One of the founders and leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party, Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov took an active part in the organisation of the Progressive Bloc. He made a famous speech in the Duma on 1 November 1916 (“Stupidity or Treason?”) … READ MORE

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  • Between 1890 and 1925, Alexandre Millerand was one of France’s leading politicians. From August 1914 to September 1915, he served as war minister in the first ''Union sacrée'' government. In 1920, he was elected president of the republic, but he had to … READ MORE

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  • E. D. Morel was one of the earliest critics of the secret diplomacy and alliance system that led to the start of the Great War. Imprisoned during the war by the British government for his writings, he later became a foreign policy leader in the Labour … READ MORE

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  • The two Moroccan crises represent the product of “rapacious joint imperialism.” Morocco could not escape the ambitions of its immediate neighbours, Spain and France, who secretly plotted to divide the country between them in 1904. The Reich provoked … READ MORE

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  • The Movement of National Defence was an organisation of Venizelist army officers and politicians who rose up against the royalist government in Athens in August 1916. They established a separate Provisional Government of National Defence in Thessaloniki … READ MORE

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  • Lauro Müller was the Brazilian minister of foreign affairs between 1912 and 1917. A pro-German politician and intellectual, he was heavily criticised during World War I by the Brazilian press and pro-United States intellectuals. Brazil maintained … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Naumann was a key figure in German liberalism in the late Kaiserreich, where he tried to reunite Left and National Liberals. In 1915, he published a widely read book on “''Mitteleuropa''” (Central Europe) which sought to give a liberal … READ MORE

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  • The Anglo-German naval race was the most spectacular strand of the general maritime arms build-up before World War I. Often, albeit misleadingly, described as both the first and the prototypical arms race among modern industrial nations, this arms race … READ MORE

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  • The Treaty of Neuilly was signed on 27 November 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allied and Associated Powers in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Its territorial clauses were considered by Bulgarian society to be a national catastrophe and the definitive failure … READ MORE

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  • During the 19th century, neutrality evolved into a set of legal and political tools designed to limit the impact of wars on the international system. This form of neutrality did not survive the first “total war”; remaining neutral was still … READ MORE

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  • Nicaragua’s experience during the First World War was influenced by the geopolitics of the Central American isthmus. The American occupation of Nicaragua between 1912 and 1925 impacted both Nicaraguan neutrality, which ended once the United States … READ MORE

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  • Nicholas II ruled Russia from 1894 and was commander of the army from September 1915 until his abdication in March 1917 amidst popular demonstrations against bread shortages, the war and autocracy. Historians dispute the relative importance of … READ MORE

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  • Nikolai Nikolaevich, a senior Russian officer and close relative of Tsar Nicholas II, was involved in attempts to reform the Russian army from 1905. He was named Commander-in-Chief at the onset of war in 1914 but was removed a year later following … READ MORE

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  • Francesco Nitti was minister of the Treasury in the Orlando Cabinet after the defeat of Caporetto in 1917 and prime minister of Italy in 1919. During his mandate he signed the treaty of Saint-Germain, started the economic reconversion of the country and … READ MORE

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  • Over the entire course of German occupation in Eastern Europe during the First World War, the Ober Ost administration wavered between domination by military leaders – and their efforts to create a settlement colony – and continued attempts by … READ MORE

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  • The so-called “''Oberstenaffäre''” (colonel’s affair) was a political scandal in Switzerland which erupted after details of a close cooperation between Swiss, German, and Austro-Hungarian military intelligence agencies emerged during World War I. … READ MORE

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  • The violation of Luxembourg’s neutrality started with the invasion on 1 August 1914, with the real occupation beginning on 2 August and lasting until 21 November 1918 when the first Allied troops arrived in … READ MORE

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  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a virtuoso pianist. He made use of his popularity in the United States and western Europe to propagate the idea of Polish independence and state sovereignty. In 20th century Poland, he became a symbol of patriotism and … READ MORE

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  • Paul Painlevé was a prominent French political leader from 1914-1917. He was the head of the Inventions Committee in charge of defining modern warfare. In 1917, at the turning point of the war, he was the minister of war and president of the Council. His … READ MORE

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  • The First World War elicited various responses from the Wilson administration based on Pan Americanism, a conception of regional integration under U.S. leadership that calls for more political cooperation and greater trade and investment. The first goal … READ MORE

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  • The Pan-German League (''Alldeutscher Verband'') mobilized members of the ''Bildungsbürgertum'' and the broader middle classes in the service of a class-based vision of ''Volksgemeinschaft'', territorial expansion, and cultural homogeneity in Germany. … READ MORE

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  • A talented administrator but a mediocre general, Cavit Pasha served in various parts of the empire, including commander of Iraq during the first year of the … READ MORE

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  • A first father of modern Turkey before Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the driving force of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) during the war, Talat organized the removal of Armenian and other Christian citizens to secure exclusive Turkish power in … READ MORE

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  • Nikola Pašić was a Serbian/Yugoslav politician and statesman. He served twenty-two terms as prime minister and fourteen terms as foreign minister, some only a few months … READ MORE

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  • Konstantin Päts, a leading Estonian politician, was a key figure in the establishment of Estonian independence during and after World War I. In 1934, he and Johan Laidoner organized a putsch and Päts became an authoritarian … READ MORE

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  • Alice Paul was an American suffragist and political rights activist. Jailed repeatedly for her activities running up to and during World War I, her work in the United States led to the passing of the 19th Amendment and the introduction of the … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich von Payer was vice-chancellor of the German Empire from November 1917 to November 1918. In November 1918, he was offered the position of Reich chancellor, which he declined. After the First World War, Payer became a founding member of the German … READ MORE

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  • Patrick Pearse was one of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising in which the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), an extremely nationalist organization, attempted to establish an independent Ireland by force. His execution was an important catalyst for the … READ MORE

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  • During the Russian Civil War, peasant uprisings swept the former Russian Empire. In 1918 and 1919, these uprisings were mainly local responses to requisitioning and conscription. In 1920 and 1921, the uprisings became larger in scale, above all in Tambov. … READ MORE

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  • Epitácio Pessoa served as the president of Brazil between 1919 and 1922. He led the Brazilian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. He was also a member of the Permanent Court of International Justice in The … READ MORE

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  • Gabrielle Petit was a secret intelligence agent working for the British General Headquarters (GHQ) in occupied Belgium. She collected information on the German Sixth Army in the Tournai-Lille area. She was condemned to death and executed in the spring of … READ MORE

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  • Józef Klemens Piłsudski was a Polish statesman, socialist politician, freedom fighter, and soldier. He commanded the Polish Legions during the First World War, and served as the first chief of state (1918–1922), marshal (from 1920 onward), prime … READ MORE

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  • Raymond Poincaré, the president of the French Republic, asserted his authority as early as 1914, in a manner contrary to institutional practices that had prevailed since 1877. After his August 1914 call for a political truce or “''union sacrée''”, … READ MORE

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  • Polish paramilitary organizations were active in Galicia from 1910 to 1914 with the permission of the Austro-Hungarian army’s intelligence service. Their ostensible aim was to militarily train young people and improve their shooting skills. The actual … READ MORE

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  • During World War One, Macau's main problem was its relationship with China. This stemmed from the consequences of its internal tensions and the lack of recognition of the Portuguese borders. However, its defence was weak, mainly based on local … READ MORE

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  • The Portuguese territory of Timor was affected by the war mainly because of its proximity to the Dutch colony, the Dutch East Indies. Furthermore, without lines of transportation and communication, Timor became more isolated and imports and exports … READ MORE

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  • The Prochaska Affair was a diplomatic dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, ostensibly concerning the fate of the Austro-Hungarian consul in Prizren. However, it carried deeper implications for the Austro-Hungarian efforts to prevent the Serbians … READ MORE

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  • When the tsarist government collapsed in February 1917, liberal politicians from the State Duma (parliament), later joined by moderate socialists, formed a Provisional Government. Unable to satisfy popular expectations for peace, or to enact social and … READ MORE

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  • Dr. Vasil Radoslavov was a Bulgarian politician and Prime Minister from 1913 to 1918. As Prime Minister he played a decisive role in Bulgaria’s decision to enter the First World War on the side of the Central … READ MORE

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  • Rasputin was a peasant turned pilgrim who became a close associate of the Russian royal family. Accounts of his wartime influence on government may be exaggerated but public perceptions of his power and rumours of his debauchery undermined the authority … READ MORE

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  • Walther Rathenau was one of the most influential entrepreneurs before the First World War. In 1914/1915 he became one of the main organizers of Germany’s war economy. After World War I he supported the “policy of fulfilment”. As German Minister of … READ MORE

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  • On 25 May 1913 Colonel Alfred Redl, the former head of Austria-Hungary’s military espionage, committed suicide in Vienna. As it turned out, Redl had betrayed Austria-Hungary’s spy-network in Russia and had sold sensitive information on war … READ MORE

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  • The Red Scare was a period of heightened fear of radicalism in the United States after World War I. Labor unrest, the growth of bolshevism internationally, and a series of bombings triggered a number of government raids on suspected radicals, often in … READ MORE

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  • The ''Renascença Portuguesa'' (1912-1932) was an important cultural movement during the republican regime (1910-1926) in Portugal. This intellectual group was founded in Porto, in the northern part of Portugal. It supported the participation of Portugal … READ MORE

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  • In occupied Belgium and France, citizens opposed the German army with organized but non-violent resistance. They created networks dedicated to military intelligence gathering, escape lines, clandestine postal networks and underground newspapers. Many of … READ MORE

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  • Social and political unrest swept the Russian Empire in 1905, forcing the autocratic tsarist regime to grant the creation of a popularly-elected legislative body; the State Duma. However, the army remained largely loyal to the Tsar, unlike in the wartime … READ MORE

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  • Alexandre Ribot belonged to the French political elite for more than forty years. During the war, he was finance minister from 1914 to 1917 and prime minister (''Président du Conseil'') from March to September … READ MORE

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  • Riezler was a German politician, diplomat, journalist and philosopher, as well as a trusted assistant of the chancellor. Although some of his surviving diary entries dated from July and August 1914 as representative of the German Foreign Office’s Press … READ MORE

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  • The Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed by Austria and twenty-seven Allied and associated countries in the ''Château Neuf'' in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, southwest of Paris, on 10 September 1919. It officially ended World War I for the successor states of the … READ MORE

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  • Sergei Sazonov became Russian Foreign Minister in autumn 1910. In July 1914 he argued for a firm stance against Austrian aggression and general mobilisation of the army, but historians dispute his responsibility for the outbreak of war. His wartime … READ MORE

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  • Philipp Scheidemann was a key figure in the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) during the First World War. On 9 November 1918, Scheidemann proclaimed the republic in Germany and became the first head of government in the Weimar … READ MORE

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  • Heinrich Schnee was the governor of German East Africa between 1912 and 1919. During the war, he remained with the German colonial troops under the command of Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck until their surrender in November 1918. In the interwar years, Schnee … READ MORE

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  • Much attention has been accorded to the massive scale of military operations in the European theatre. However, sea power, which determined the control of global communications and was the key to exploiting global resources of manpower, food, industrial … READ MORE

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  • The Selective Service Act of 1917 was the official name of the military draft signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson following the United States’ entry into World War I. It authorized the federal government to expand the American armed services … READ MORE

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  • An Irish-born writer and critic, best known as a playwright, George Bernard Shaw was an ardent opponent to World War I. Already in his fifties at the start of the war, Shaw was outspoken in his antiwar speeches and also published a pamphlet entitled … READ MORE

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  • Boris Shtiurmer was Prime Minister from January to November 1916, also serving as Interior Minister between March and July 1916 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from July to November. Denunciations of Shtiurmer in Russia’s parliament, or Duma, for … READ MORE

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  • The Sixtus Affair was the failed attempt by Emperor Charles I. of Austria and his bother-in-law Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma to conclude a compromise peace with the members of the Entente-Powers between January and May … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, political writer and editor of Lithuanian magazines, Antanas Smetona in 1917 became chairman of the Council of Lithuania, which declared Lithuania as an independent state in 1918. He was twice President of Lithuania, 1919-1920 … READ MORE

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  • Jan Smuts was a South African lawyer and statesman who ultimately became deputy prime minister of the Union of South Africa. During the war, Smuts was Minister of Defence, Finance and Mines. He served for a time in German South West Africa before … READ MORE

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  • At the outbreak of the First World War, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) voted, as the largest party in the German Empire, for the granting of war loans. However, the thus-introduced "truce" policy was rejected by more and more members of … READ MORE

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  • The privately organized SSS existed from October 1915 to July 1919 to prevent Swiss companies from forwarding goods and raw materials produced by the Entente to the Central Powers. The SSS grew from an international agreement between the governments of … READ MORE

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  • Wilhelm Solf, long-term governor of German Samoa, served as Colonial Secretary between 1911 and 1918 and as the last imperial Foreign Secretary in winter 1918. During the war Solf supported expansionist war aims in Africa and a policy of restraint in … READ MORE

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  • Sidney Sonnino was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during World War I. He negotiated the Treaty of London, defining the terms with which Italy would enter into the war alongside the Triple Entente. His actions during the Paris Peace Conference … READ MORE

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  • The painter Adriano de Sousa Lopes was the only official Portuguese war artist in the Great War, stationed on the Western Front. Like most of his international colleagues, he produced remarkable field drawings and etchings. This article explores his … READ MORE

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  • Spain became a centre of international espionage in 1914. Its strategic location in terms of the Anglo-French trade soon attracted German attention. The Germans waged an economic and propaganda war against the Allies from Spain, while the British took … READ MORE

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  • The Spanish government maintained a benevolent neutrality policy towards the Entente Powers during the First World War. Liberal and Conservative cabinets decided it was the only position consistent with their country's traditionally friendly relations … READ MORE

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  • This article summarises the main wartime stereotypes that defined war propaganda in Germany, France, Great Britain, the USA and Russia. It focuses less on particular details of each national enemy image and more on the basic make-up of wartime stereotypes … READ MORE

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  • Hugo Stinnes was a highly successful and politically influential heavy industrialist. During the First World War, he adopted a German nationalist position and advocated the colonisation of Belgium and parts of France. After the defeat, Stinnes negotiated … READ MORE

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  • Stresemann was a leading wartime annexationist and proponent of moderate domestic reforms. Committed to restoring national strength after defeat and revolution, he became one of the Weimar Republic’s foremost statesmen. He served as chancellor during … READ MORE

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  • Karl Graf von Stürgkh was an Austrian member of the Imperial Council, Minister for Education, and Minister President of Cisleithania from 3 November 1911 until his assassination on 21 October 1916 by the Social Democrat Friedrich Adler. Stürgkh was one … READ MORE

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  • In May 1916, the German government issued a pledge to the United States that the Imperial navy would not attack passenger ships and would further allow the crew of merchant ships which carried war material to exit their vessels before they would be … READ MORE

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  • Ivan Šušteršič was a leading figure in the Slovenian and Habsburg political milieu prior to and during World War One. A prominent member of the Catholic People’s Party, he was at the forefront of the pro-Habsburg political currents in Carniola, … READ MORE

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  • Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905. She wrote an internationally acclaimed antiwar novel ''Die Waffen nieder!'' (''Lay Down Your Arms!'') and co-founded the Austrian Peace Society (1891) and the journal, ''Die Waffen … READ MORE

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  • In dividing the Fertile Crescent into British and French spheres, the wartime Sykes-Picot Agreement laid the foundation of the colonial division of the region ratified at the St. Remo (1920) and Lausanne (1923) conferences, when Palestine … READ MORE

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  • Federico Tinoco Granados was the Costa Rican president from 1917-1919 who declared war on Germany in April 1917. With his support for the United States during the last two years of the war, he tried to gain President Woodrow Wilson’s acceptance. The … READ MORE

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  • István Tisza was a Hungarian politician and minister. He served as Prime Minister from 1903 to 1905 and from 1913 to 1917. Austria-Hungary entered the First World War during Tisza's second period as prime … READ MORE

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  • Trentino is an Italian-speaking region which was the southernmost part of the Tyrol. With Italy’s entry into the war, it found itself in the front area. After the war it was annexed to the Kingdom of … READ MORE

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  • As prefect of the ''département ''of the Nord at the outbreak of war, Félix Trépont encouraged the defence of Lille during the invasion, eventually oversaw the evacuation of men and material, and resisted collaboration with the Germans during the … READ MORE

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  • Before and at the beginning of World War I, various proposals concerning the creation of a third part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy were brought up for discussion. Each of the aspiring groups (Czech, South Slavic and Polish) assumed that becoming a new … READ MORE

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  • The Treaty of Trianon is one of the Paris peace treaties that ended the First World War. It was concluded between Hungary and the Allied and Associated Powers on 4 June 1920 in the Grand Trianon Palace situated in the Versailles Palace park. It sanctioned … READ MORE

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  • Troelstra was a charismatic socialist leader who overestimated his influence and called for a socialist revolution in November 1918. His call was ignored and after suffering a nervous breakdown, he re-entered … READ MORE

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  • Leon Trotsky's communist leadership was partially responsible for bringing about the October Revolution of 1917, after which Russia exited the First World War. Starting as an activist, he became People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs and People’s … READ MORE

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  • Ante Trumbić was a Croat politician who played an instrumental role in the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) in December 1918. Between 1905 and 1934, he served in a range of influential posts including as mayor of Split; … READ MORE

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  • The province of Turkestan - modern-day Central Asia -, a Russian military colony since 1865-1875, truly entered WWI in 1916, when Tsar Nicholas II and his military staff decided, on 7 July (Gregorian calendar), to conscript a new labour force from the … READ MORE

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  • At the beginning of the 20th century Ukrainian lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian (Galicia, Transcarpathia, Bukovina) and Russian (the nine right-bank and left-bank provinces) Empires. Therefore, with the beginning of the First World War … READ MORE

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  • Kārlis Ulmanis was the first prime minister of the Republic of Latvia. His four terms of office saw the successful conclusion of the Latvian War of … READ MORE

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  • The Union of Democratic Control was a prominent opposition group in Britain that particularly criticised the operation of British foreign policy and the role of "secret diplomacy". It advocated public oversight of diplomacy and was an early advocate of … READ MORE

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  • Since the beginning of the 20th century, political conflicts determined relations between the German Empire and the USA. The Caribbean became one of the scenes of these conflicts during and following World War I. General reasons were the … READ MORE

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  • One of the most prominent and important statesmen in modern Greek history, Eleutherios Venizelos full-heartedly favored Greek participation in World War I on the side of the Entente. This caused tension with King Constantine I, who favored neutrality. … READ MORE

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  • Victor Emmanuel III played an important, if often overlooked part in Italy’s decision to intervene in World War I on the side of the Entente. During the war, he managed to solve two political crises and to defend Italy’s position within the Entente … READ MORE

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  • Rodrigo de Saavedra y Vinent, Marqués de Villalobar was the diplomatic representative of Spain to Belgium from 1913 to 1926. During the war, his humanitarian activities in occupied Belgium alleviated the suffering of the … READ MORE

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  • René Viviani was a leading French politician in the early 20th century. When the war broke out, he was prime minister (''Président du Conseil'') and contributed to the formation of the ''Union … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, as professor at the University of Perm (Russia), Augustinas Voldemaras actively participated in the activities of Lithuanian exiles in Russia. In 1917 he argued for Lithuanian independence. On 11 November, 1918 he headed the … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, the Swiss federal government imposed a state of emergency, which was established to ensure the maintenance of Swiss neutrality, supply and integrity. As the war progressed, legal measures under this regime became more frequent … READ MORE

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  • The latter Austrian ''Land'' Vorarlberg saw the rise of a grass root movement for a political union with Switzerland between autumn 1918 and spring 1919. These ideas never materialized, however, as the Paris Peace Treaties vetoed their … READ MORE

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  • The War Requirements Acts were passed in Austria-Hungary in 1912. They placed military requisitions under parliamentary control and helped the army to obtain the most needed products and services during wartime in a more organized … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, Austria-Hungary implemented a state of emergency with several emergency laws overseen by the ''kaiserlich und königlich ''(''k.u.k.'') ''Kriegsüberwachungsamt'' (war surveillance office, abbreviated KÜA). Although it … READ MORE

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  • As an adviser in the imperial office of the treasury (1916-1918), the Heidelberg economist Alfred Weber helped establish Poland and Lithuania as satellite states under the hegemony of the German Reich (''Mitteleuropa''). During the Weimar Republic, he … READ MORE

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  • Brand Whitlock served as the U.S. minister and ambassador to Belgium from 1914–1921. During the war, Whitlock facilitated the humanitarian activities of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, which imported food for more than 9 million civilians in … READ MORE

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  • Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich Prince of Wied, born to a German Protestant noble family, reigned briefly as Prince of Albania from 7 March 1914 until 3 September 1914. In addition to domestic issues and his lack of political experience, the outbreak of the … READ MORE

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  • Kaiser Wilhelm II’s ambitious policies played a major part in bringing about the First World War, yet with the onset of hostilities he was sidelined by his generals. In certain key areas, however, notably in appointments to top positions and in the … READ MORE

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  • Queen Wilhelmina was by nature a forceful leader. The First World War showed that she lacked the meekness and patience that the head of a small neutral state … READ MORE

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  • Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the twenty-eighth President of the United States (1913-1921). Wilson unsuccessfully attempted to bring the belligerents to the negotiating table, but in 1917 reluctantly concluded that the U.S. should join the war as an … READ MORE

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  • Hipólito Yrigoyen was president of Argentina during a critical moment of the First World War. He maintained neutrality despite internal and external pressures, and promoted Pan-Hispanism to counteract United States … READ MORE

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  • Referred to as the “grandmother of German communism” at the time of her death in 1933 by the ''Manchester Guardian'', Clara Zetkin was a prominent feminist leader within the German social democratic movement and the Socialist International in the … READ MORE

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  • Nikola Zhekov was a Bulgarian infantry general, the Bulgarian minister of war from August through October 1915, and commander-in-chief of the Bulgarian army during the First World War, from 1915 to … READ MORE

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  • Named for its author, the German minister of foreign affairs Arthur Zimmermann, the so-called Zimmermann Telegram threw a disturbing light on German wartime diplomacy in Mexico and it catalyzed the United States' entry into the First World … READ MORE

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See also

  • Since 1905 Britain had paid the Afghan ruler, Amir Habibullah, a subsidy and had controlled Afghanistan’s foreign relations, and he maintained Afghanistan’s neutrality throughout World War I in spite of strong pressure to induce him to join the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Though largely understudied to date, the regions in the western Balkans inhabited by Albanian speakers were afflicted by World War I in distinctive ways. The parceling out of former Ottoman lands to satiate the needs of neighboring political and economic … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The impact of the First World War on Australia was so profound that its memory dominates the national political culture even today, in the form of the Anzac “legend.” The mass casualties suffered in the Gallipoli campaign, Palestine and on the Western … READ MORE

    Regional
  • This article presents a survey of the First World War in the region of today’s states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland. Chronologically the article begins with the outbreak of the war in August 1914 and ends with the conclusion of the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • From 1912 to 1918 Bulgaria engaged in a prolonged conflict that began in victory in 1913 and ended in defeat in 1918. During that period, the conflict exhausted Bulgaria’s manpower and material resources. By the end of the fighting in 1918, Bulgaria was … READ MORE

    Regional
  • This article discusses China’s role in the First World War with a focus on the country’s contribution to the war and the role of the war in shaping Chinese development and its place in the world. Contrary to common knowledge, China was not only … READ MORE

    Regional
  • With its economy highly reliant on Great Britain, Germany and other European nations, Denmark had to navigate between the two belligerent blocks during the war. This combined with shortages and inflationary pressures lead to a massive growth in state … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The war in East and Central Africa was one of the longest running of the Great War. It started on 8 August 1914 when the wireless station at Dar es Salaam was bombed and ended on 25 November 1918 when the Germans officially surrendered'' ''at Abercorn. … READ MORE

    Regional
  • To study France during the “Great War” – as it was called as early as 1914 – involves focusing on a major Western state that was confronted with a growing demand for resources to fuel the war machine and enable the country to hold out until … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Great Britain was with its Empire the most powerful of the major belligerents, the most politically and socially stable, and the best able to endure the strains of the war. Its great naval, financial and diplomatic strengths were critical to the Allied … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Greece officially entered the Great War rather belatedly in June 1917, despite informal involvement since 1914. The war divided Greek political elites, leading the whole country into a civil strife that lasted for decades. This text aims to present the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Ireland’s war experience cannot be separated from Irish politics. Indeed, the story is not one of 1914-18 but of 1912-23, as the vast majority of people sought to change Ireland’s place in the United Kingdom, resisted by others who, though a minority, … READ MORE

    Regional
  • When the First World War broke out in Europe, Latin Americans of all social strata soon felt that the conflict would plunge the world into a crisis of hitherto unknown dimensions. Due to its globally entangled structures, the continent experienced the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Despite its neutrality, Luxembourg was occupied in August 1914 mainly for its strategic value. For four years, the national elites engaged in a difficult policy of cooperation with the German occupier. This choice did not prevent a deterioration of the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Montenegro entered the First World War politically and militarily exhausted. The outcome of the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1912 and 1913 had a devastating impact on the future of Montenegro. From 1914 until January 1916, the Montenegrin army fought … READ MORE

    Regional
  • New Zealand was the British Dominion furthest from the conflict in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Nonetheless with Britain’s declaration of war on Germany, New Zealand and its one million inhabitants were enmeshed in the Great War. The whole … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Norway managed to stay neutral during the First World War, but the war still crept into Norwegian life and impacted it in numerous ways. With a large merchant fleet – the fourth largest in the world – and heavily dependent upon imports, Norway’s … READ MORE

    Regional
  • During the Great War, the Ottoman Empire fought on several major and minor fronts, both in the Middle East and in the Balkans. Although initially seen as a military liability by its allies and a weak enemy by its foes, Ottoman armies delivered some heavy … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The outbreak of the First World War coincided with a period in Persian history when, following the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909, the Iranians were poised to refashion the constitutional order and establish an independent, accountable and … READ MORE

    Regional
  • This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article focuses mainly on the political and military developments … READ MORE

    Regional
  • World War I afforded the first opportunity for modern Romania to participate in a war which had a larger than regional horizon (South East Europe). The most important reason for participation was interest in gaining territories belonging to … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The Russian Empire entered the war in order to preserve its Great Power status, but it ended the war in a bout of revolution and decolonization. The army had a mixed record in the war, losing several key battles but remaining a dangerous force until the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • A short synthesis on Serbia's role and experience in the Great War encompasses several questions that still provoke controversies and offer many carefully reexamined data on issues such as war efforts in general, war casualties, war financing, refugees … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Siam (Thailand) declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary in mid-1917. In 1918 it sent a small expeditionary force to France, the only troops of an independent Southeast Asian country to participate in the war in Europe and the occupation of Germany. … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The people of Southern Africa experienced the First World War as a continuation of late 19th century European imperialism. The war did not introduce new historical trends as much as it extended and exacerbated imperialism’s ill effects. In … READ MORE

    Regional
  • This article examines Spain’s neutrality during the Great War, highlighting factors such as the lack of military resources; the division of public opinion and internal conflicts; and actors such as King Alfonso XIII (whose mediating role helped to … READ MORE

    Regional
  • For Sweden, the impact of the war was twofold. On the one hand, it was a test to the neutrality policy. Concessions and violations of neutrality got consequences for both foreign affairs and the economy. On a domestic level, it meant shortages and … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The Netherlands remained neutral during the First World War, but was nevertheless significantly affected by it. Its army remained fully mobilized to counter any possible threat, and its economy felt the strain of both belligerents’ attempts to control … READ MORE

    Regional
  • In 1914, the Union of South Africa was four years old; its military only two. British supremacy in the South African War (1899-1902) provoked different responses from English and Afrikaner white South Africans to World War I. Prime Minister Botha, seeing … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The American debate over neutrality ended when Woodrow Wilson decided in April 1917 that German aggression on the high seas threatened US national security. From 1917-18 the Wilson administration vastly expanded the power of the federal government by … READ MORE

    Regional
  • This article examines the deployment of West African soldiers for military service in West Africa, including the manner of mobilization and recruitment. By demonstrating the heavy reliance on West African soldiers for the ‘European’ conduct of the … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The idea for the unification of the Southern Slavs emerged in the 19th century and the strength of its appeal varied over the course of its development. During the First World War, unification became the main war aim of the government of the … READ MORE

    Regional

Survey Articles (Thematic)

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the history of Jews in Europe but also in the history of … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • France and Germany remained principal protagonists of the First World War. This essay will examine the reasons why both nations believed they were in a legitimate war of defense, for which domestic unity was the indispensable precondition. The essay will … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By 1914 the leading states had succumbed to varying degrees of militarism, subordinating other interests to those of the armed forces, yet all were governed by regimes in which the ultimate authority rested with civilian leaders. Civilians led the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the First World War, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (called “Yugoslavia” from 1929) emerged as new national states on the territories of the crumbling Habsburg Empire. Pre-dating the establishment of the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The internment of enemy aliens in the First World War was a global phenomenon. Camps holding civilian as well as military prisoners could be found on every continent, including in nation-states and empires that had relatively liberal immigration policies … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • One sees a wide range of political regimes from a democratic republic with universal male suffrage (France) to parliamentary, constitutional, or even oligarchical monarchies in the countries that entered the First World War. This article explores the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • After an initial wave of interest in 1914 and the immediate post-war period, international historiography long neglected the wartime occupation of territories inhabited by large civilian populations. Recently, new research has focused on the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The idea of peace in total war may seem irrelevant, but pacifism, or peace activism, did exist during the First World War. A seemingly robust European peace movement existed before 1914, but it contained internal divisions and mostly collapsed early in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This paper examines major peace initiatives during World War I. It describes efforts by the chief European belligerents to split apart enemy coalitions with separate peace settlements as well attempts by the United States and socialist Russia to spark … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The conduct of warfare in 1914-1918 included extensive population resettlement in all theatres of war in Europe, both as a result of pre-emptive decisions by civilians to flee in order to evade the conflict or to avoid the consequences of occupation, and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article surveys the various movements toward social, national, and political revolution that emerged during and in the wake of World War I. The Russian revolutions of 1917 serve as the first case study, followed by the mutinies in France, and the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Despite what some believe, there is still a lot to say and learn about the First World War, particularly with regard to war aims. A lot of focus is currently placed on the cultural, social and psychological facets of the Great War, much more than on the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • It may surprise us to learn that some sectors of the European public were in favour of the war in 1914. The impact of modern weapons was not well understood and many people in the government, military and civilian population imagined that the conflict … READ MORE

    Thematic

Regional Thematic Articles

  • Civilians in the Australian government contended with two types of military power in the Great War: generals of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF), and British army military commanders and the War Office who had operational control of the AIF. In most … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • From 1916 to 1928, the Republic China was divided among military cliques in the regions of mainland China. Provincial military power holders, by proving the impotence of Beijing, undermined the efforts to centralize power and strengthened the forces of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The responsibilities of politicians and military leaders are defined in times of war. The president commands the armed forces, the government - subject to the representatives of the nation - is in charge of conducting the war and the military operations … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In Italy, as in the other European states involved in the First World War, the outbreak of hostilities saw extraordinary powers conferred upon the armed forces, so as to free them from the supervision of government and parliament. War legislation … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Like the Sino- and Russo-Japanese Wars, the First World War gave an enormous boost to Japanese military operations and authority. The Imperial Navy deployed for the first time to the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and the army … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The First World War required the most comprehensive mobilization of men and resources in the history of the empire. It transformed the Ottoman state into a more centralized, authoritarian, and nationalist entity. This article explores the impact of total … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In pre-war South East Europe, both civilian and military powers focused on the creation of independent national states and the reclamation of imperial ''irredenta''. This goal, aggressively pursued, created serious regional tension between imperial and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • During World War I, an unprecedented civil-military relationship developed among the U.S. government, its military, and civilian society. America struggled to find fair conscription policies despite class, ethnic, racial, and ideological differences. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal went to war in March 1916 with a government and an army that did not sit comfortably with each other. The young republican regime’s relationship with its armed forces was difficult despite its popularity among a small number of officers and a … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the mechanisms, results, and characteristics of the national mobilization in Russia in the conditions of the First World War. Moreover, it considers the forms of cooperation between the government and the public, the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • When World War I broke out, the military conquest of the countries located between China, Siam and the South China Sea had been over for two decades. Nonetheless, French rule in Indochina was not entirely established and the exploitation of economic … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The diplomacy of Portugal’s participation in the Great War was largely determined by the desire of elites to improve the international standing of the country, as well as by domestic factors related to the bitter quarrels of the republican … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite the official neutrality maintained by Spain throughout the First World War, the conflict had a considerable impact on that country’s internal politics. The political stances taken gave rise to a process that divided society into two opposing … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Neutrality is a fundamental problem in modern Swiss history and played a pivotal role in both world wars. During the Second World War the danger came from the outside, while during the First World War Switzerland was also threatened from within. From 1914 … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa shared an ambiguous constitutional relationship with Britain. The self-governing dominions were free to implement their own policies in matters of defence, but their limited … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Although a military failure, the 1916 rebellion transformed Ireland by destroying the possibility of a political settlement between Irish nationalists and the British state and by popularising a republican movement prepared to use violence to achieve … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Throughout the Great War, successive Spanish governments tried to advance traditional foreign policy claims – the annexation of Tangier, the return of Gibraltar and the possibility of intervening in Portugal – while at the same time facing the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Kingdom of the Netherlands upheld a foreign policy of strict neutrality during the First World War. That policy revolved around two main precepts: upholding the requirements associated with neutrality in international law (particularly the Hague … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In 1917, with tens of thousands of Canadian soldiers killed and wounded, the end of the war was nowhere in sight. As the supply of volunteers dried up, conscription became the dominant issue in Canada. French Canadians were singled out and accused of not … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Commonwealth of Australia, a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire, experienced splits during the Great War in the major parties of both the left and right. The Australian Labor Party, in 1914 the most successful social democratic party in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the shifting nature of Canadian federal politics during the First World War with an emphasis on conscription and the formation of the Union Government. The impact of these issues on national unity is examined, as is the deterioration … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • China’s attempt to participate in the European war was complicated by domestic turbulence. Japan’s bid for supremacy in China compelled President Yuan Shikai to propose the Twenty-one Demands in 1915, and after Yuan’s death, there were two … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite its weaknesses, the French parliamentary republic survived the First World War without compromising the constitutional laws that had been in place since 1875. The ''Union sacrée'' was formed on 4 August 1914. While this initially resulted in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the beginning of World War I, Germany was a constitutional monarchy in which political parties were limited to the legislative arena. They could control neither the government nor the military. At the end of the war, the political system had been … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Great War marked a period of profound upheaval in British politics. The old controversies of Edwardian politics were replaced by new debates about military strategy, civil-military relations and the capacity of the state to mobilize the nation for … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • During the period of neutrality, Italian public opinion was divided into two camps: one interventionist, and the other, in the majority, opposed to Italy’s entry into the war. Neutralism brought together the two most important political groupings in the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Despite over 7,000 miles of separation from the Western Front, Imperial Japan underwent a political transformation during the First World War almost as dramatic as that in the vanquished capitals of Europe. As was the case with most belligerents, the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In South Africa the period between 1914 and 1918 was one of intense political and industrial turmoil. It entailed two violent strikes, eventually suppressed by the South African government, a rebellion against the state by Afrikaner insurgents and the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • New Zealand’s wartime parliament was dominated by a coalition between the two main parties, Reform and Liberal. Labour parliamentarians opposed the coalition and the war was a significant factor in the making of a new Labour … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Founded in October 1910, the Portuguese Republic was soon mired in turmoil. The victorious Portuguese Republican Party, in reality a broad ideological coalition united only by the desire to topple the monarchy, soon fragmented acrimoniously, first into a … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the beginning of World War I, Russian political parties found themselves in deep crisis. In contrast, the State Duma had become the epicenter of the country’s political life. The “Holy Alliance” established between the authorities and society was … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This essay analyzes domestic politics in the United States during World War I, focusing chiefly on the Wilson administration’s relations with Congress and on electoral politics from 1914 to 1918. Throughout this period, war-related issues became … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article seeks to analyze how the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the oldest existing humanitarian organization, coped with the outbreak of the First World and its aftermath. By using innovative methods of work and by deploying an … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Russian Civil War of 1917-20 was closely related to the World War in terms of its cause, conduct, and results. This article discusses the two distinct phases of the Civil War, which were divided by the collapse of the Central Powers. It examines the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the history of the Spanish army during the First World War in the context of the Spanish strategic and security situation. It shows the interrelation between Spanish military weakness and strategic insecurity. Particularly focusing … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Armistice agreement foresaw the occupation of the left bank of the Rhine, the dates of which were set by the Treaty of Versailles. The inter-allied occupation was a long-term endeavour: the French settled in the south and the Belgians in the north of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In 1914, Allied leaders plunged Africans into a conflict that was not their own. In West Africa, British and French colonial troops quickly occupied Togo, while the conquest of Cameroon proved much more difficult. A relatively short campaign led by white … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the politics of the German (''Generalgouvernement'' Warschau) and Austro-Hungarian (''Militärgeneralgouvernement'' Lublin) occupation of the Kingdom of Poland during World War One. Both occupation governments strove to exploit the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article studies Germany’s experiences of occupation during and immediately after the First World War. The first section examines the French attack on Alsace-Lorraine in August 1914 and the Russian invasions of East Prussia from August 1914 until … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The occupation of the Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire was essentially the by-product of the war, but it had been in the making for a long time. Despite their attempt to appear as liberators rather than occupiers, the British and, later, the French … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Memories of occupation by foreign forces are not usually articulated except when prisoners of war speak of their experiences when debriefed. These are usually shameful episodes in the lives of those who survived. Collaboration with the enemy often … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Occupation played a crucial role in Eastern Europe between 1914 and 1921: the highly mobile front allowed trenches to be shifted over hundreds of miles, resulting in the usurpation of foreign lands. While Russia only managed to occupy Habsburg Galicia and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The occupation of South East Europe 1915-1918 had a complex structure reflecting different and often conflicting territorial claims and goals. In the fall of 1915 Serbia was divided into Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian and German occupation zones. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article examines the German occupation of Belgium and Northern France in 1914–1918. Besides focussing on the occupiers’ motives and logic of action regarding their policy and practices, it gives an idea of the complexity of the occupier/occupied … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • World War One represented a turning point in the relationship between churches and the Portuguese state. Both Catholics and Protestants perceived the conflict as an opportunity to expand their scope of influence in a society then dominated by a sector … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article charts the contours of the Great War as an American religious experience, focusing on the ways in which the study of religion and the Great War in America forces an examination of what is meant by “religion.” American clergy and American … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Great War helped to ease the Church-state tensions that had shaped French politics and society during the preceding generation. However, the very different context of the French colonial empire prevented a similar reconciliation overseas. This article … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Africans across the continent resisted colonial demands and took up arms against European colonizers during World War I. This essay presents three ways of recognizing and analyzing such acts of resistance. First, many Africans refused increased colonial … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Revolutionary movements in India haunted the imagination of post-war British officialdom. They were used in the aftermath of the First World War to justify everything from colonial massacres to the indefinite censorship of the press. But what were these … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The following pages - focusing on the collapse of the Habsburg Empire and the incidents in Austria in 1918/20 - are subdivided into four different periods and aspects: Firstly, World War One until the increasing protest movements of 1917/18, secondly, … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article discusses the influence the Russian Revolution had on countries in East Central Europe. In the Polish Kingdom and Lithuania there was no direct impact because of the German occupation. The parties which sympathized with the Bolsheviks had no … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article focuses on the upheaval between 1917 and 1923. These years were marked by crumbling empires, national mobilisation, and conflicting ideologies and forms of government. Rather than single out specific revolutionary or counter-revolutionary … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal’s participation in the First World War, never consensual, was marked by a number of violent episodes that first undermined and then overthrew the Sacred Union government. Some of these were rural and urban mutinies occasioned by inflation and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The Russian Revolution was one of the most influential events to emerge from the furnace of the First World War. It transformed Russia and its Empire and firmly planted the flag of world revolution at the centre of 20th century world history. … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • From the outbreak of World War I, Woodrow Wilson pursued two goals: a non-punitive peace settlement to end the conflict and a reformation of world politics through an international peace-keeping organization to prevent such wars in the future. Before the … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • The First World War led to a renewed imperialist scramble for territory in Africa. Allied victory and African campaigns allowed British, French, Belgian, Portuguese and South African leaders to acquire Germany’s colonies. Their wartime colonial aims … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Although Britain declared war on the Dominions’ behalf, Australia had its own war aims. The most important of these was the survival of the British Empire, which the vast majority of Australians believed was key to the country's cultural identity and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • In July 1914 the Habsburg monarchy went to war with Serbia declaring it sought no territorial gain from the struggle. Soon discussions of possible territorial acquisitions, along with economic and political aims, started among the governing elite and … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Already in autumn 1914, East Central Europe became a main theatre of operational warfare and an object of strategic planning for the Central Powers, Russia, and later the Entente. After strategic failure in the West, Germany focused on this region as an … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • On 4 August 1914, in his first speech after the declaration of war, Raymond Poincaré, president of the French Republic, did not outline any aims other than the ''Union sacrée'' (sacred union) and the defence of the country’s borders. Once the hopes … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • At the outbreak of the First World War, Italian diplomacy did not have a clear vision of the goals to be achieved. Therefore, in negotiations with the countries already involved in the conflict, excessive territorial claims were made. The errors of … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • Portugal’s wartime governments never formulated a concrete set of war aims. The nature of the country’s intervention did not lend itself to this kind of debate. With a long-defined border with Spain, and more colonial territory than it could … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic
  • This article offers a survey of the main currents in South East Europe in regard to the war aims of the belligerents from 1914. Some war aims had deep roots in the pre-war years. The author puts emphasis on the emerging Yugoslav state in the Balkans. The … READ MORE

    Regional Thematic

Encyclopedic Entries

  • On 25 May 1915, Argentina’s, Brazil’s and Chile’s ministers of foreign affairs signed a treaty to facilitate the peaceful solution of international controversies in Buenos Aires. Mired in diplomatic discussions for more than ten years, this treaty, … READ MORE

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  • A minority of the adherents of the Flemish movement were willing to collaborate with the German occupier in the context of ''Flamenpolitik''. This minority labelled themselves “activists”, stressing their dislike of the Belgian patriotic … READ MORE

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  • Until his death in 1918, Victor Adler was the most prominent Austrian socialist leader and among the leading personalities of the Second Socialist International. During the war, he aimed to preserve Austrian Social Democracy’s impressive prewar gains … READ MORE

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  • Ador was the third president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a Swiss minister during WWI. He displayed the charisma, the diplomatic skills and the decisiveness necessary to give the ICRC a crucial role in the protection of … READ MORE

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  • Albert I, the third king of the Belgians, played a leading role as supreme commander of the Belgian army during the First World War. For four years he defended the last piece of unoccupied Belgium behind the Yser River, refusing to sacrifice his troops in … READ MORE

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  • Albrecht Duke of Württemberg was the commander-in-chief of the German 4th Army from 1914-1917 and the ''"Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht"'' ("Army Group Duke Albrecht") from 1917-1918. The 4th Army fought under Duke Albrecht’s … READ MORE

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  • Umar al-Da’uq was a merchant and notable of Beirut in the late Ottoman period. He was Mayor of Beirut during WWI and participated in his official and private capacities in the famine relief efforts. He became president of the short-lived Arab government … READ MORE

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  • Born Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, Aleksandra Fedorovna married the future Russian Emperor Nicholas II in 1894 and became empress. She was engaged in charity work and served as a nurse during the First World War. However, she was suspected of treason and … READ MORE

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  • Alfonso XIII was a controversial Spanish king during the first decades of the 20th century. During the First World War he established a humanitarian office for prisoners and civilian relief at the Royal Palace in … READ MORE

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  • The diffusion of anarchism in Latin America, which began in the 1870s, was boosted by large migration flows. Between 1890 and 1920, anarchism was an essential element in the process of workers’ self-organization. Opposition to the war characterized the … READ MORE

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  • A short lived agency, the Arab Bureau (1916-1920), was ostensibly established to co-ordinate British wartime policy in the Near East, track the regional direction of Turco-German activity and disseminate propaganda among Indian Muslims. In fact, its … READ MORE

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  • There were a number of Arab intellectuals who actively cooperated with the Entente and Central Powers during the Great War through their actions, writings and speeches. The entry focuses on the actions of Shakib Arslan, Muhammed Kurd Ali and the al-Khatib … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, Arnold J. Toynbee, as a member of the Political Intelligence Department, was charged with preparing analyses on the Middle East for the Paris Peace Conference. The global war was pivotal for the elaboration of his philosophy of … READ MORE

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  • Asquith was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the outbreak of war. He formed a coalition in May 1915 but accusations of ineffectiveness led to his replacement by David Lloyd George in December 1916. He remained out of office and subsequently lost … READ MORE

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  • The Republic of Azerbaijan is a majority Turkic and secular Muslim nation in the South Caucasus. This republic was proclaimed on 28 May 1918, during World War I. The Bolshevik invasion on 27 April 1920 ended Azerbaijan’s brief independence. The nation … READ MORE

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  • A lawyer, Progressive, and pacifist, Newton Baker was U.S. Secretary of War during World War I. He oversaw a massive mobilization that relied on a sweeping draft law and cooperation between government officials, business elites, and reformers. Baker’s … READ MORE

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  • Arthur James Balfour was a British Conservative politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and was later Foreign Secretary. In the latter post, he issued the Balfour Declaration of 1917 on behalf of the British government, … READ MORE

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  • The Imperial and Royal Ministry of the Imperial and Royal House and of Foreign Affairs, informally called “Ballhausplatz” after the Viennese square on which the central office was located, was one of only three joint ministries of Austria-Hungary. … READ MORE

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  • Cesare Battisti was the leader of the socialist party of the Italian Tirol (Trentino) and, from 1911, a member of the Austrian parliament. At the outbreak of war he went to Italy to engage in pro-intervention propaganda. In 1915 he joined the Italian … READ MORE

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  • Max Bauer was a German artillery expert and a key suborndinate in the German Supreme Command. A loyal suporter of Ludendorff, Bauer intrigued against Falkenhayn and consistently pushed for the further militarisation of German everyday life. He played a … READ MORE

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  • Otto Bauer was a leading Austro-Marxist and socialist politician who served during the war as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army. After returning from Russian internment to Vienna in 1917, he joined the Leftist opposition within the Social Democratic … READ MORE

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  • Gertrud Bäumer was one of the most well known leaders of the German women’s movement. In 1914, as the president of the Federation of German Women’s Associations (''Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine'', BDF), she co-founded the National Women’s Service … READ MORE

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  • Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was a Dutch Prime Minster who successfully dealt with the threat of revolution in November … READ MORE

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  • Edvard Beneš was a Czech politician, diplomat, and close collaborator of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. As Secretary General of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris from 1916 to 1918, he successfully organized Czechoslovak propaganda; helped create the … READ MORE

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  • Leopold Graf Berchtold, Habsburg foreign minister from 1912 to 1915, was confronted with military action during and after the Balkan Wars, yet kept peace. Then, the Sarajevo assassinations, blamed on Serbia, convinced him that only war with Serbia would … READ MORE

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  • During the First World War, Berlin became an organisational hub for Indian nationalist and revolutionary activities. By September 1914, a group of South Asian emigrants had organized – with permission of and in cooperation with the German Foreign Office … READ MORE

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  • Count Bernstorff was German ambassador to the United States from 1908 to 1917. He tried in vain to warn the Reich government against unrestricted submarine warfare which would result in America’s entry into the … READ MORE

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  • Hans Hartwig von Beseler was a German general and military engineer who oversaw the conquest of several fortresses early in the war. He was then named commander of German-occupied Poland, a post he held until the end of the … READ MORE

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  • Bethmann was a career civil servant who became Imperial Germany’s fifth Reich Chancellor and took Germany into the First World War. Despite heading the imperial German political administration, his power was circumscribed by the role of Kaiser Wilhelm … READ MORE

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  • Louise de Bettignies created an intelligence network for the British in occupied France. She was arrested, sentenced to death in March 1916 and deported to the prison of Siegburg. Sick, she died in Cologne in September 1918, and was commemorated … READ MORE

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  • Moritz von Bissing was born on 30 January 1844, in Bellmannsdorf, Silesia, then part of the German Empire. He served as governor general of the Prussian Army from December 1914 until his death on 18 April 1917 in Trois Fontaines, a village in … READ MORE

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  • This article looks at the Black Hand from its origins to the demise of its leader, Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis", in the Salonika Trial of 1917, focussing on the role the association played in Serbia’s foreign and domestic affairs before and during the … READ MORE

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  • Howard Sweetser Bliss was the President of the Syrian Protestant College (SPC) during the war. His congenial relationship with Jamal Pasha helped to ensure the security of the college and American community throughout the war. At the Paris Peace … READ MORE

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  • Jan Bloch was an entrepreneur, social activist and pacifist. At the end of his life, he published a comprehensive work in which he predicted the course and consequences of World War I. He warned of the dangers of a total, destructive war and urged … READ MORE

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  • Bonar Law was leader of the Conservative Party in Britain during the war. He entered Asquith’s coalition government in May 1915, and in December 1916 played a crucial role in Lloyd George becoming Prime Minister. For the rest of the war, he was a key … READ MORE

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  • The borders of the Netherlands were an important site of war experience for the Dutch, as well as a contested site of war interaction for the … READ MORE

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  • As a Flemish nationalist, August Borms actively collaborated with the Germans during the First World War. As a result of his ten-year imprisonment and his death sentence he became a true symbol of Flemish … READ MORE

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  • In the narrow sense, the so-called “Bosnian Crisis” (or “Annexation Crisis”) of 1908 and 1909 was a political conflict between Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire caused by the (formal) incorporation of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the territory … READ MORE

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  • Venceslau Brás was president of Brazil between 1914 and 1918. On 26 October 1917, he signed the Brazilian declaration of war against … READ MORE

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  • Liberal Prime Minister Ionel Brătianu led the charge to transform Romania's foreign policy, after three decades on the same side with the Triple … READ MORE

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  • Brazil was the only South American country that participated actively in the First World War. Before the war, the country was economically dependent on European and North American markets and modelled itself on Western culture and science. After the war, … READ MORE

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  • At Brest-Litovsk, from 22 December 1917 to 10 February 1918 (Julian calendar: 9 December − 28 January), Soviet representatives and the Central Powers negotiated a separate peace. On 3 March 1918, following the breakdown of the talks and a new German … READ MORE

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  • As an imperial diplomat, first Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic, leader of the German Peace Delegation in Versailles and also first ambassador to the Soviet Union, he acted in decisive positions in pre- and post-war German foreign policy. His … READ MORE

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  • Charles de Broqueville, chief of the Belgian government during the First World War, acted as liaison between the king and the Belgian government. He supported the king in his attempts to obtain peace and his efforts to break free from the … READ MORE

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  • The Belgian capital was spared the anguish of combat, but the city suffered four long years of occupation. In fact, it became the most important occupied city during the First World War. For the population, these were times of scarcity, repression, and … READ MORE

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  • Williams Jennings Bryan was a powerful Democratic politician, from his emergence on the American political scene in the 1890s to his death in 1925. A three-time Democratic nominee for president, Bryan served as secretary of state under President Woodrow … READ MORE

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  • During his career as a diplomat and courtier (knighted count in 1899 and prince in 1905), Bernhard von Bülow became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (after 1897) and German Chancellor (1900-1909). He hoped to attain a “place at the sun” for his … READ MORE

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  • István Burián was a leading Austro-Hungarian career diplomat and politician, rising to become the Monarchy’s longest-serving foreign minister during the First World War. Burián’s wartime policies included trying to pacify neighboring neutrals and … READ MORE

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  • Minister plenipotentiary for England in Lisbon, there was consensus about Lancelot Carnegie as a diplomat in Portuguese public opinion. He was recognized as one of the people responsible for the consolidation of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. With the … READ MORE

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  • For three decades Romania’s foreign policy depended almost entirely upon King Carol I’s will. The secret alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was his sole political project. His death, which occurred shortly after the outbreak of the First World … READ MORE

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  • Following a career as British consul and humanitarian investigator, Roger Casement became involved in the Irish nationalist movement and the Irish Volunteers. On the outbreak of war, he sought help in Germany for Irish independence. On learning of the … READ MORE

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  • Cemal Paşa belonged to the top leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. He served as wartime minister of the navy and autocratic governor general and commander of the Fourth Army in … READ MORE

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  • In his youth, the archduke was introduced to the idea of federalism by Archduke Franz Ferdinand. During the first part of World War I, he became a skillful military leader without any political influence. The young emperor’s two main aims, the reform of … READ MORE

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  • Churchill was Navy Minister during the early stages of the war but was widely criticized over his handling of the Dardanelles campaign. He was demoted and soon afterwards resigned from the government in order to serve on the Western Front. He quickly … READ MORE

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  • World War I had a profound impact on concepts of citizenship. Not only did hosts of people find themselves under new sovereignty at the end of the war, but many individuals had to contend with the experience of statelessness or redefinition as “enemy … READ MORE

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  • Count Heinrich Karl Clam-Martinic was a German-speaking Bohemian high aristocrat and close friend to heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Under Emperor and King Charles I, Clam-Martinic was Austrian (Cisleithanian) prime minister from 1916 to 1917 and … READ MORE

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  • During the war, Georges Clemenceau fought for a more efficient war effort and for parliamentary control of military affairs and, as a journalist, rejected unlimited censorship. As French premier, he embodied the “integral war” and the struggle for … READ MORE

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  • Collaboration is often associated with the military occupations of the Second World War, but there was a precursor to this multi-faceted phenomenon in occupied France and Belgium during the First World War. This article examines the meaning of … READ MORE

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  • Michael Collins was a revolutionary leader who rose to become chairman of the Irish provisional government in 1922 and Commander-in-chief of its army in the brief interval that supervened before his death the same year. He sought to use violence in a … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Naumann’s ''Mitteleuropa'' (1915) was a liberal voice in the largely illiberal German discussion on the future of East Central and South East Europe. His reasoning, based on principles of free trade and voluntary cooperation, did not dominate … READ MORE

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  • During World War I, many conscription age-men sought exemptions from combat duty for reasons of conscience. Religious beliefs formed the large majority of objections, but other reasons included humanitarian and political opposition to the war. While most … READ MORE

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  • King Constantine I, a brave army officer but rather controversial in his political choices, is mainly known for his strong disagreement with Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos over the role of Greece in World War I, which resulted in the painful … READ MORE

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  • The Corfu Declaration was a formal agreement between the government-in-exile of the kingdom of Serbia and the Yugoslav Committee (anti-Habsburg South Slav émigrés) that pledged to unify Serbia with Austria-Hungary’s South Slav territories in a … READ MORE

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  • George Creel is most famous as Chairman of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) in the United States during the First World War. Under his leadership, the CPI pioneered public relations and propaganda techniques that were later used both by … READ MORE

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  • Ottokar Graf Czernin was an Austrian politician and the minister of foreign affairs for Austria-Hungary from 1916 to … READ MORE

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  • Josephus Daniels was United States secretary of the Navy from 1913–1921. He democratized, expanded, and modernized the United States Navy, preparing it for service in the First World War. During the war Daniels championed the North Sea mining barrage … READ MORE

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  • Har Dayal was one of the chief architects of a quixotically sketched blueprint to effect a republican-socialist revolution in British India during the First World … READ MORE

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  • As a socialist, Eugene Debs unsuccessfully ran for president four times. He served two prison sentences: the first due to his role in the Pullman Strike in 1894, and the second after being indicted under the Espionage Act as result of his criticism of … READ MORE

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  • Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, Lenin issued his Decree on Peace, calling for a truce and demanding that peace be agreed upon by people’s assemblies to be convened across Europe. There was no popular European uprising, however, … READ MORE

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  • A local notable and mayor of Lille during the occupation, Charles Delesalle was forced to work with the Germans but also sought to protect the population as best as possible. In particular, he played an important role in food provision, overseeing … READ MORE

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  • De Valera was a prominent figure in the Easter 1916 rebellion against British rule. He subsequently became head of the Irish … READ MORE

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  • Roman Stanisław Dmowski was a Polish politician and most importantly the co-founder of National Democracy in Poland before the First World War and during the interwar period. He was also the co-founder of Polish National Committee in 1917 and served as … READ MORE

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  • In February 1917 two centres of power emerged to replace the tsarist government: the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet. The Provisional Government had formal authority but the Soviet controlled the actual levers of power, including the … READ MORE

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  • W.E.B. Du Bois, sociologist, historian, and socialist, promoted African American advancement and expected the war to improve the position of nonwhite minorities in the United States and globally. He was the editor of the NAACP magazine, which protested … READ MORE

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  • The Tsar reluctantly granted an elected legislative assembly, the State Duma, during the 1905 Russian Revolution. The first two Dumas were dissolved amidst bitter conflict and the third did little to resolve Russia’s pressing social and economic issues. … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Ebert became the most important leader of the SPD during the First World War, alongside Philipp Scheidemann. During the revolution, Ebert rose to the top position within party hierarchy and drew Germany towards parliamentary democracy, first as … READ MORE

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  • Queen Elisabeth was the third queen of the Belgians. Her attitude during the First World War propelled her to the mythic rank of "Queen … READ MORE

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  • After leading the coup that brought the Committee of Union and Progress to power, Enver was appointed chief of staff and war minister. Convinced of a German victory, he decided to join World War One. In November 1918, he fled to Germany and then to … READ MORE

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  • As a Member of Parliament 1917, Erzberger, the former annexationist, played an important role in drafting the Reichstag’s Peace Resolution and the setting up of the ''Interfraktioneller Ausschuss'' (Interparty Committee). As secretary of state of the … READ MORE

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  • Paul Eyschen, prime minister of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg from 1888 to 1915, insisted on the neutral status of Luxembourg, but practiced a policy of accommodation towards German occupying forces during the war. This policy was disapproved of by the … READ MORE

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  • Faysal ibn Husayn commanded the Northern Army of the Arab Revolt and was raised to the throne of Syria in October 1918. The French invasion drove him from Damascus in April 1921. Made king of Iraq under British tutelage, Faysal guided the country to … READ MORE

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  • Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria undoubtedly contributed to the modernization of the country. His name, however, is linked to two national catastrophes: Bulgaria’s participation in the Second Balkan War, and the failure of Bulgarian national ideals during … READ MORE

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  • Abel Ferry was a French politician and minister as well as an infantry combatant, who used his first-hand knowledge of the war to try and shape the official war effort. He died as a result of his parliamentary inquiries at the front. His diaries and … READ MORE

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  • The German ''Flamenpolitik'' during the First World War aimed to instrumentalise the Flemish movement in order to ensure lasting German control over Belgium. It did not divide the Belgian or even Flemish population as a whole, but managed to split the … READ MORE

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  • The First World War engendered a rift within the Flemish movement, with some wishing to pursue the advocacy for Flemish rights and others preferring to await the end of the war to obtain new laws. After the war, the Flemish movement broadened its base and … READ MORE

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  • The Fourteen Points were U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s post World War I blueprint to end territorial disputes in Europe, promote international commerce, and make the world safe for democracy. They were based on the ideas of open trade and collective … READ MORE

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  • Under the terms of the 1867 constitution, Francis Joseph retained his prerogatives in foreign policy. His decision to opt for war in 1914 was largely a result of the frustrations of Austria’s policy during the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. Francis Joseph … READ MORE

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  • Ludwig Frank was a member of the Reichstag for the Social Democratic Party. When Germany entered the war, he strongly supported voting for war loans and volunteered for war service at the age of forty. He was killed in combat shortly afterwards in … READ MORE

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  • This biographical overview of Archduke Franz Ferdinand examines the evolution of his difficult personality through the traumatic experiences of barely surviving tuberculosis and fighting for the right to marry; his political orientation and imperial … READ MORE

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  • “Freedom of the seas” was the early 20th century idea that the world’s oceans served as a global commons for carrying cargo and facilitating commerce. As both a communal property and throughway, the seas thus could not be controlled by … READ MORE

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  • Juozas Gabrys was one of the major advocates of Lithuanian political aspirations in the international arena from 1911 to 1918. He contributed to the establishment of the Council of Lithuania in 1917. However, by acting mainly abroad, he gradually lost … READ MORE

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  • General Joseph-Simon Gallieni was a colonial officer who became the Governor of Paris in 1914 and Minister of War in … READ MORE

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  • Arnaldo Garcez was the only official photographer of the Portuguese army on the Western Front, a fact that hints at the importance of his mission. Arriving in France in 1917, he thoroughly reported on a specific sector amidst the British lines, from the … READ MORE

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  • Harry Garfield worked in a number of civic positions during his life. When the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow Wilson asked him to oversee the Fuel Administration. As the leader of the Fuel Administration, Garfield successfully … READ MORE

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  • Lindley Garrison was a prominent lawyer and politician from New Jersey who rose to the rank of vice chancellor of the state in the early 1910s. Because of his prominence, Woodrow Wilson selected him to be his first secretary of war. However, the two … READ MORE

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  • Eric Geddes was the most prominent example of Britain’s deployment of businessmen in government. He was the driving force behind the reorganization of the British Expeditionary Force’s (BEF) logistics on the Western Front and the political head of the … READ MORE

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  • After the German Army had occupied wide areas of Belgium, the “Imperial Government General in Belgium” was established on 23 August 1914 with a governor-general at its head. Organized into a military administration (the “Government General”) and a … READ MORE

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  • In 1915, Germany set up the “''Generalgouvernement'' Warschau”, or General Governorate Warsaw, as the administrative unit for its occupied territories in Russian Poland. Under the leadership of Governor General Hans von Beseler and Wolfgang von Kries, … READ MORE

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  • The ''Große Hauptquartier'' (Great Headquarters or GHQ) was the strategic command centre of the German armed forces for the duration of the war. It comprised representatives of all political and military decision-making … READ MORE

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  • The German Fatherland Party (1917-1918/1919) aspired to mobilize members of the broader radical right as well as the milieus of the German Conservative Party and the National Liberal Party. It aimed to gather broad support for the annexationist War Aims … READ MORE

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  • German-speaking elites in Brazil were traditionally in contact with German colonial actors, and during World War I, many middle-class immigrants sympathized with Germany. This led to a conflict within Brazilian society, where people predominantly sided … READ MORE

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  • Germany’s offer of unconditional support to its Austro-Hungarian ally in July 1914 remains one of the most controversial decisions in modern history. Historians have interpreted the blank cheque in several, often contradictory, ways – either as a … READ MORE

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  • Although sometimes characterized as a quixotically hatched scheme to overthrow British rule in India, the Ghadar “conspiracy” is best understood as a failed bid to foment a democratic revolution in India in the midst of the First World War. The … READ MORE

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  • Colmar von der Goltz was one of pre-war Germany’s most outstanding and controversial military theoreticians. His publications had a considerable impact on military thought and the role of armed forces within society around the world. His ideas were … READ MORE

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  • Thomas Watt Gregory served as Attorney General of the United States during World War I. He played a key role in developing the Espionage and Sedition Acts to suppress dissent during World War I and enforcing Selective Service draft laws. He served as an … READ MORE

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  • Grey was the longest-serving British foreign secretary of the 20th century. His time in office is controversial for his role in the outbreak of the First World … READ MORE

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  • Grigorovich was Navy Minister between 1911 and 1917. He sought cooperation with parliament and secured funds to rebuild fleets ravaged by war with Japan. His support for mobilisation in 1914 helped push Russia into a conflict for which the navy was … READ MORE

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  • Robert Grimm was the most powerful socialist politician in Switzerland throughout the first half of the 20th century. As the organiser of the Zimmerwald and Kiental Conferences, he was one of the prominent figures of the international socialist … READ MORE

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  • As head of the Railway Section at the General Staff, Groener was responsible for the timely transport of troops to the front in August 1914. He was sacked from the Supreme Army Command (''Oberste Heeresleitung'', OHL) in August 1917 and deployed to the … READ MORE

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  • İsmail Hakkı was an experienced civil servant. He collected and published detailed statistics on the population, economic activities, education, natural resources and means of transportation in his provinces, and attempted relief efforts to alleviate … READ MORE

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  • Liberal Secretary of State for War 1905-1912. Haldane’s reforms of the British Regular Army and its auxiliaries were instrumental in ensuring that Britain could dispatch an expeditionary force to assist the Belgians and French in August … READ MORE

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  • Maurice Hankey was responsible for adapting the British government’s administrative machinery to the needs of modern war. He became an influential behind-the-scenes adviser to British prime ministers during the … READ MORE

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  • Georg von Hertling was the chancellor of Germany from 1 November 1917 to 3 October … READ MORE

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  • Paul von Hindenburg shot to fame after the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914. He was Germany’s national hero of wartime, soon eclipsing the Kaiser. Appointed to the Supreme Command in 1916, he increasingly took on a political role. His myth survived … READ MORE

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  • After the First World War, Hitler created a mythical account of his war years for political gain. This account was a far cry from the realities of his war experience on the Western … READ MORE

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  • After working first as a lawyer and legal scholar, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. accepted positions on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts and the United States Supreme Court. As a Supreme Court justice Holmes wrote opinions that shaped the debate on … READ MORE

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  • Herbert Hoover obtained political prominence during World War I through his roles as chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Belgium (CRB) and the U.S. Food Administration. Following the war, Hoover served as head of the American Relief Association … READ MORE

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  • Horthy was a naval officer of Austria-Hungary. During the First World War he was first in command of a cruiser and then chief commander of the navy. After the war he took part in the counter-revolution in Hungary against the Bolshevik regime; following … READ MORE

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  • Edward House was an advisor to President Woodrow Wilson. He aided Wilson in diplomatic matters and in crafting the Fourteen Points that became the framework for the League of … READ MORE

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  • Elias Hoyek was Patriarch of Antioch for the Maronites. He is considered to be one of the fathers of Lebanonism, a symbol of resistance against Ottoman hegemony, and the founder of Lebanese … READ MORE

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  • Husayn ibn Ali launched the Arab Revolt in alliance with Great Britain. His relations with his European allies remained uneasy and deteriorated further when a unified Arab state under his rule failed to materialize after the war. Ibn Sa‘ud’s conquest … READ MORE

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  • The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence mapped out with studied ambiguity the terms of the wartime alliance between Great Britain and Hashemites that underpinned the Great Arab Revolt (July 1916-October 1918) against Ottoman … READ MORE

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  • Italy entered the First World War in May 1915, roughly ten months after it began. During those ten months, the battle of opinions for and against intervention raged on. Public meetings, demonstrations, and street clashes that occasionally left partisans … READ MORE

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  • A Romanian politician, Dumitru Ionescu, commonly known as Take Ionescu, was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the most erudite statesmen in Eastern Europe. He was one of the main politicians who manoeuvred Romania’s entrance into the First … READ MORE

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  • The campaign for Irish Home Rule lasted from 1870 until 1914. When Home Rule became a realistic possibility in 1912, a period of political turmoil ensued. Parliamentary solutions to the impasse were overtaken by the emergence of rival armed paramilitary … READ MORE

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  • Gottlieb von Jagow was a German diplomat. He served as the German Foreign Secretary from January 1913 to November … READ MORE

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  • A philosopher, historian, and journalist (creator of'' L’Humanité''), Jean Jaurès defended the socialist program for workers and small farmers in the Chamber of Deputies and throughout France. Within the Second International, an organisation of … READ MORE

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  • Bishop Jeglič was one of the most prominent Slovenian Church figures in the era leading up to the outbreak of the First World War. His political actions during the war decisively shaped the people’s perspective on the Habsburg Monarchy and had an … READ MORE

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  • In October 1916, the Prussian War Ministry conducted the ''Judenzählung'', also referred to as the “Jew Count” or “''Judenstatistik'',” a census of Jewish soldiers serving in the German army. The ''Judenzählung'' operated on unfounded … READ MORE

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  • In July 1917, economic chaos and unpopular preparations for military action provoked armed demonstrations by workers and troops demanding the Petrograd Soviet take power from Russia’s Provisional Government. The uprising failed and reprisals were … READ MORE

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  • Peter I Karadjordjević was King of Serbia from 1903 to 1918, and King of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from 1918 to 1921. He also translated the essay “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) into … READ MORE

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  • Aleksandr Kerenskii was Minister of War in Russia’s Provisional Government from April to October 1917 and Prime Minister from July to October. He embodied the hopes of the February Revolution of 1917, the doomed military offensive of June 1917, and the … READ MORE

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  • The "khaki" general election of 1918 was held in Great Britain almost immediately after the Armistice. It was the first held under what was almost universal adult suffrage. The result was a crushing victory for a coalition comprised of Liberals supporting … READ MORE

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  • The King’s African Rifles (KAR) were the British colonial military within East Africa before and during the First World War. While initially rarely involved in the British operations in East Africa, the continued resistance of the German … READ MORE

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  • Aleksandr Vasil'evich Kolchak was a Russian admiral and political figure. He participated in the Russo-Japanese War, the First World War, and the Russian Civil War. He was one of the leaders of the White movement in eastern Russia and was proclaimed … READ MORE

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  • Béla Kun was a Hungarian communist politician. He began his career as a social democrat. During the First World War he was captured by the Russians and later became a Bolshevik in Russia. From 1918 onward, he filled significant positions in the … READ MORE

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  • La Dame Blanche was an intelligence network created in Belgium in 1916. It was essentially devoted to the observation of railways. At the end of the war, it was comprised of over 1,000 agents and covered a large part of the occupied … READ MORE

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  • Johan Laidoner, Estonian general and statesman, started his career in the Russian army during World War I. He was crucial in establishing an Estonian army, which he commanded in the War of Independence (1918-20). In 1934 he participated in a coup … READ MORE

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  • Robert Lansing served as U.S. Secretary of State from June 1915 until February 1920. A career lawyer, Lansing was a leading proponent of “benevolent neutrality” in the years before the United States entered the war. He also served as a member of the … READ MORE

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  • T.E. Lawrence’s exploits during the Arab Revolt have acquired mythical status, making it difficult to distinguish between what he actually achieved and what was the product of his overactive imagination. Less contested is his role in brokering the … READ MORE

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  • In 1921 and 1922 the highest German court, the ''Reichsgericht'' in Leipzig, under pressure from the Allied powers, put seventeen Germans on trial for suspected war crimes in twelve trials. The trials and their results were criticized in both Germany and … READ MORE

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  • Vladimir Il’ich Lenin was the founder and leader of the Bolshevik Party and of the Soviet state up until his death. Theoretically and practically he combined the strategy of a socialist revolution with imperialism and war. After thus successfully … READ MORE

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  • Karl Liebknecht was the leading German socialist opponent of the First World War. He was the first member of parliament to vote against the financing of the war. On 1 May 1916 he was arrested and imprisoned for giving an anti-war speech in central Berlin. … READ MORE

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  • Lloyd George was a leading Liberal politician before World War I, who went on to play a central role in the United Kingdom’s war effort as Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915), Minister of Munitions (1915-1916), Secretary of State for War (1916) and … READ MORE

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  • Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican senator from Massachusetts. Close friend to Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge supported imperialist endeavors and favored military preparedness following the outbreak of World War I. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations … READ MORE

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  • Named after the German ''chargé d’affaires'' in Buenos Aires, Count Karl von Luxburg, the Luxburg Affair was the diplomatic issue that brought Germany and Argentina to the brink of war in … READ MORE

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  • Ramsay MacDonald opposed British entry into the European conflict in 1914. Although often represented as anti-war, he subsequently supported the Allied cause. He criticised balance of power diplomacy in the hands of a cloistered elite. Despite tensions, … READ MORE

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  • Macedonia was one of the main battlefields on the Balkan Front during World War I. The article describes the pre-war activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), its role in the Bulgarian occupation regime, and the fall of the … READ MORE

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  • Nestor Makhno was a commander of peasant insurgents who fought the Bolsheviks, Whites and Ukrainian nationalists in the South East of present-day Ukraine. His espousal of anarchism has won him supporters among many Western anarchists, but some historians … READ MORE

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  • French Interior Minister when the war was declared, Louis Malvy embodied the Union sacrée and the quest for social peace. In 1917, he was accused of treason and involved in a political scandal that led to the fall of the … READ MORE

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  • A Finnish aristocrat, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim served as cavalry commander in the Imperial Russian army during the First World War. After the Russian Revolution, he commanded Finnish White forces in the Finnish Civil War of 1918. He served as the Head … READ MORE

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  • Marie Adelheid reigned from 1912 to 1919 as the Grand-Duchess of Luxembourg. Because of her friendly attitude towards the German occupying forces during World War I, the Luxembourgers and Allies accused her of sympathizing with the Germans. Failing to … READ MORE

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  • The ''Marinegebiet'' on the Belgian coast was the Imperial German Navy’s base for attritional warfare against Entente shipping in the North Sea. The resulting occupation regime was particularly harsh on civilians; their plight was compounded by British … READ MORE

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  • Martial law refers to the exercise of governmental power over the civilian population by military authorities. The use of martial law varied among belligerent countries, and its geographical scope and material extent changed over the course of the war. … READ MORE

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  • The notion of “martial races” was formally developed and codified in the wake of the Indian Uprising of 1857 and became an important basis for the recruitment policy of the Indian Army. Constantly manipulated and adapted to changing political and … READ MORE

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  • The terms "martyrs" and "separatists" refer to the decentralist Arabists of Syria who were executed by Cemal Pasha during World War I as a result of their alleged plot to separate the Syrian land from the Ottoman … READ MORE

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  • Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was a Czech politician who started the Czechoslovak independence movement abroad. As head of the Czechoslovak National Council from 1916 to 1918, he provided an ideological basis for Czechoslovak propaganda, helped create the … READ MORE

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  • Mata Hari was a famous Dutch female dancer, who spied in France for the German intelligence during the war. Arrested by the French, she was condemned to death and executed in October … READ MORE

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  • Adolphe Max, the mayor of Brussels, was known for his peaceful resistance against the Germans and his resulting jail-time. He was considered by the Belgian public as a hero of the Great … READ MORE

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  • For many years Prince Maximilian of Baden was portrayed as a positive figure in German history - the liberal Chancellor who in 1918 helped to turn Germany into a republic. This view has been considerably altered by recent scholarship, including letters … READ MORE

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  • William G. McAdoo was an American politician and businessman. During World War I, he served as Secretary of the Treasury and director of the US Railroad Administration. In these positions he was the architect of the USA's wartime financial planning and … READ MORE

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  • Ioannis Metaxas was a conservative army officer and politician, who influenced decision-making in Greece during World War I by collaborating with King Constantine I. In 1936 he became head of an oppressive dictatorial regime and in 1940 he was responsible … READ MORE

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  • It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its … READ MORE

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  • Georg Michaelis is usually portrayed as the politically failed chancellor of 1917. His resignation after fourteen weeks in office was the first overthrow of a Reich chancellor initiated by Reichstag political parties. Before he was appointed chancellor, … READ MORE

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  • Japanese interest in expansion into the South Pacific began in the 1870s. World War I provided a long sought after chance for the Japanese Imperial Navy to enhance its standing and gain a strategically important base. Japanese claims to the South Sea … READ MORE

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  • One of the founders and leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party, Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov took an active part in the organisation of the Progressive Bloc. He made a famous speech in the Duma on 1 November 1916 (“Stupidity or Treason?”) … READ MORE

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  • Between 1890 and 1925, Alexandre Millerand was one of France’s leading politicians. From August 1914 to September 1915, he served as war minister in the first ''Union sacrée'' government. In 1920, he was elected president of the republic, but he had to … READ MORE

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  • E. D. Morel was one of the earliest critics of the secret diplomacy and alliance system that led to the start of the Great War. Imprisoned during the war by the British government for his writings, he later became a foreign policy leader in the Labour … READ MORE

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  • The two Moroccan crises represent the product of “rapacious joint imperialism.” Morocco could not escape the ambitions of its immediate neighbours, Spain and France, who secretly plotted to divide the country between them in 1904. The Reich provoked … READ MORE

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  • The Movement of National Defence was an organisation of Venizelist army officers and politicians who rose up against the royalist government in Athens in August 1916. They established a separate Provisional Government of National Defence in Thessaloniki … READ MORE

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  • Lauro Müller was the Brazilian minister of foreign affairs between 1912 and 1917. A pro-German politician and intellectual, he was heavily criticised during World War I by the Brazilian press and pro-United States intellectuals. Brazil maintained … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich Naumann was a key figure in German liberalism in the late Kaiserreich, where he tried to reunite Left and National Liberals. In 1915, he published a widely read book on “''Mitteleuropa''” (Central Europe) which sought to give a liberal … READ MORE

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  • The Anglo-German naval race was the most spectacular strand of the general maritime arms build-up before World War I. Often, albeit misleadingly, described as both the first and the prototypical arms race among modern industrial nations, this arms race … READ MORE

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  • The Treaty of Neuilly was signed on 27 November 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allied and Associated Powers in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Its territorial clauses were considered by Bulgarian society to be a national catastrophe and the definitive failure … READ MORE

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  • During the 19th century, neutrality evolved into a set of legal and political tools designed to limit the impact of wars on the international system. This form of neutrality did not survive the first “total war”; remaining neutral was still … READ MORE

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  • Nicaragua’s experience during the First World War was influenced by the geopolitics of the Central American isthmus. The American occupation of Nicaragua between 1912 and 1925 impacted both Nicaraguan neutrality, which ended once the United States … READ MORE

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  • Nicholas II ruled Russia from 1894 and was commander of the army from September 1915 until his abdication in March 1917 amidst popular demonstrations against bread shortages, the war and autocracy. Historians dispute the relative importance of … READ MORE

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  • Nikolai Nikolaevich, a senior Russian officer and close relative of Tsar Nicholas II, was involved in attempts to reform the Russian army from 1905. He was named Commander-in-Chief at the onset of war in 1914 but was removed a year later following … READ MORE

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  • Francesco Nitti was minister of the Treasury in the Orlando Cabinet after the defeat of Caporetto in 1917 and prime minister of Italy in 1919. During his mandate he signed the treaty of Saint-Germain, started the economic reconversion of the country and … READ MORE

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  • Over the entire course of German occupation in Eastern Europe during the First World War, the Ober Ost administration wavered between domination by military leaders – and their efforts to create a settlement colony – and continued attempts by … READ MORE

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  • The so-called “''Oberstenaffäre''” (colonel’s affair) was a political scandal in Switzerland which erupted after details of a close cooperation between Swiss, German, and Austro-Hungarian military intelligence agencies emerged during World War I. … READ MORE

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  • The violation of Luxembourg’s neutrality started with the invasion on 1 August 1914, with the real occupation beginning on 2 August and lasting until 21 November 1918 when the first Allied troops arrived in … READ MORE

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  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a virtuoso pianist. He made use of his popularity in the United States and western Europe to propagate the idea of Polish independence and state sovereignty. In 20th century Poland, he became a symbol of patriotism and … READ MORE

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  • Paul Painlevé was a prominent French political leader from 1914-1917. He was the head of the Inventions Committee in charge of defining modern warfare. In 1917, at the turning point of the war, he was the minister of war and president of the Council. His … READ MORE

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  • The First World War elicited various responses from the Wilson administration based on Pan Americanism, a conception of regional integration under U.S. leadership that calls for more political cooperation and greater trade and investment. The first goal … READ MORE

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  • The Pan-German League (''Alldeutscher Verband'') mobilized members of the ''Bildungsbürgertum'' and the broader middle classes in the service of a class-based vision of ''Volksgemeinschaft'', territorial expansion, and cultural homogeneity in Germany. … READ MORE

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  • A talented administrator but a mediocre general, Cavit Pasha served in various parts of the empire, including commander of Iraq during the first year of the … READ MORE

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  • A first father of modern Turkey before Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the driving force of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) during the war, Talat organized the removal of Armenian and other Christian citizens to secure exclusive Turkish power in … READ MORE

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  • Nikola Pašić was a Serbian/Yugoslav politician and statesman. He served twenty-two terms as prime minister and fourteen terms as foreign minister, some only a few months … READ MORE

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  • Konstantin Päts, a leading Estonian politician, was a key figure in the establishment of Estonian independence during and after World War I. In 1934, he and Johan Laidoner organized a putsch and Päts became an authoritarian … READ MORE

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  • Alice Paul was an American suffragist and political rights activist. Jailed repeatedly for her activities running up to and during World War I, her work in the United States led to the passing of the 19th Amendment and the introduction of the … READ MORE

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  • Friedrich von Payer was vice-chancellor of the German Empire from November 1917 to November 1918. In November 1918, he was offered the position of Reich chancellor, which he declined. After the First World War, Payer became a founding member of the German … READ MORE

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  • Patrick Pearse was one of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising in which the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), an extremely nationalist organization, attempted to establish an independent Ireland by force. His execution was an important catalyst for the … READ MORE

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  • During the Russian Civil War, peasant uprisings swept the former Russian Empire. In 1918 and 1919, these uprisings were mainly local responses to requisitioning and conscription. In 1920 and 1921, the uprisings became larger in scale, above all in Tambov. … READ MORE

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  • Epitácio Pessoa served as the president of Brazil between 1919 and 1922. He led the Brazilian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. He was also a member of the Permanent Court of International Justice in The … READ MORE

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