Regions South East Europe

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • Though largely understudied to date, the regions in the western Balkans inhabited by Albanian speakers were afflicted by World War I in distinctive ways. The parceling out of former Ottoman lands to … READ MORE

    Regional
  • From 1912 to 1918 Bulgaria engaged in a prolonged conflict that began in victory in 1913 and ended in defeat in 1918. During that period, the conflict exhausted Bulgaria’s manpower and material … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Greece officially entered the Great War rather belatedly in June 1917, despite informal involvement since 1914. The war divided Greek political elites, leading the whole country into a civil strife … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Montenegro entered the First World War politically and militarily exhausted. The outcome of the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1912 and 1913 had a devastating impact on the future of Montenegro. … READ MORE

    Regional
  • World War I afforded the first opportunity for modern Romania to participate in a war which had a larger than regional horizon (South East Europe). The most important reason for participation was … READ MORE

    Regional
  • A short synthesis on Serbia's role and experience in the Great War encompasses several questions that still provoke controversies and offer many carefully reexamined data on issues such as war … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The idea for the unification of the Southern Slavs emerged in the 19th century and the strength of its appeal varied over the course of its development. During the First World War, … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • The Balkan Wars were two sharp conflicts that heralded the onset of World War I. In the First Balkan War a loose alliance of Balkan States eliminated the Ottoman Empire from most of Europe. In the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article looks at the Black Hand from its origins to the demise of its leader, Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis", in the Salonika Trial of 1917, focussing on the role the association played in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Liberal Prime Minister Ionel Brătianu led the charge to transform Romania's foreign policy, after three decades on the same side with the Triple … READ MORE

    Entry
  • For three decades Romania’s foreign policy depended almost entirely upon King Carol I’s will. The secret alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was his sole political project. His death, which … READ MORE

    Entry
  • ''Chetnik'' is a common name for a member of the auxiliary or paramilitary units used by the Serbian army for guerrilla warfare during the Great War. The ''chetnik'' tradition dates from the time of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Count Heinrich Karl Clam-Martinic was a German-speaking Bohemian high aristocrat and close friend to heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Under Emperor and King Charles I, Clam-Martinic was … READ MORE

    Entry
  • King Constantine I, a brave army officer but rather controversial in his political choices, is mainly known for his strong disagreement with Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos over the role of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Corfu Declaration was a formal agreement between the government-in-exile of the kingdom of Serbia and the Yugoslav Committee (anti-Habsburg South Slav émigrés) that pledged to unify Serbia with … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria undoubtedly contributed to the modernization of the country. His name, however, is linked to two national catastrophes: Bulgaria’s participation in the Second Balkan … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A Romanian politician, Dumitru Ionescu, commonly known as Take Ionescu, was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the most erudite statesmen in Eastern Europe. He was one of the main … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Bishop Jeglič was one of the most prominent Slovenian Church figures in the era leading up to the outbreak of the First World War. His political actions during the war decisively shaped the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Peter I Karadjordjević was King of Serbia from 1903 to 1918, and King of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from 1918 to 1921. He also translated the essay “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Situated above the Austro-Hungarian naval base in the Bay of Kotor, Mount Lovćen was extremely important for both the Central Powers and the Entente. The mountain was a symbol of Montenegrin … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Macedonia was one of the main battlefields on the Balkan Front during World War I. The article describes the pre-war activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), its role … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ioannis Metaxas was a conservative army officer and politician, who influenced decision-making in Greece during World War I by collaborating with King Constantine I. In 1936 he became head of an … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Movement of National Defence was an organisation of Venizelist army officers and politicians who rose up against the royalist government in Athens in August 1916. They established a separate … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Neuilly was signed on 27 November 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allied and Associated Powers in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Its territorial clauses were considered by Bulgarian society … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Nikola Pašić was a Serbian/Yugoslav politician and statesman. He served twenty-two terms as prime minister and fourteen terms as foreign minister, some only a few months … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Kosta Pecanac was a prominent ''chetnik'' leader before the Great War and one of the leaders of the Toplica uprising against the Bulgarian and Austro-Hungarian occupation of Serbia in 1917. Between … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Prochaska Affair was a diplomatic dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, ostensibly concerning the fate of the Austro-Hungarian consul in Prizren. However, it carried deeper implications for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Dr. Vasil Radoslavov was a Bulgarian politician and Prime Minister from 1913 to 1918. As Prime Minister he played a decisive role in Bulgaria’s decision to enter the First World War on the side of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although ''sanjak'' usually means any one of many Ottoman administrative units, one has become known as “the Sanjak.” Following the Treaty of Berlin the Sanjak of Novi Pazar became the symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Stephan Baron von Sarkotić was an Austro-Hungarian general who had already made his mark as a political officer prior to the outbreak of World War I. During the war, he formulated different … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ivan Šušteršič was a leading figure in the Slovenian and Habsburg political milieu prior to and during World War One. A prominent member of the Catholic People’s Party, he was at the forefront … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ante Trumbić was a Croat politician who played an instrumental role in the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) in December 1918. Between 1905 and 1934, he served in a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • One of the most prominent and important statesmen in modern Greek history, Eleutherios Venizelos full-heartedly favored Greek participation in World War I on the side of the Entente. This caused … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich Prince of Wied, born to a German Protestant noble family, reigned briefly as Prince of Albania from 7 March 1914 until 3 September 1914. In addition to domestic issues and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Nikola Zhekov was a Bulgarian infantry general, the Bulgarian minister of war from August through October 1915, and commander-in-chief of the Bulgarian army during the First World War, from 1915 to … READ MORE

    Entry

See also

  • The First World War and its direct repercussions in the postwar period (revolution, counterrevolution, the founding of republics, and the Paris peace treaties) mark a profound caesura not only in the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The term "atrocity" describes an act of violence condemned by contemporaries as a breach of morality or the laws of war. "Atrocities" are culturally constructed; by 1914, an international discourse … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The article discusses the role of the media in the complex international process leading to the First World War with a focus on the press of the great powers. Recent research has shown that the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the First World War, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (called “Yugoslavia” from 1929) emerged as new national states on the territories of the crumbling … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • During the entire war, warring powers used the “secret war” to try to break the balance of the battlefield. Generally created in the previous few decades, intelligence and security services saw … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article focuses on the extent to which imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. The first part describes the emergence of specific imperialist cultures and attitudes in … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • By examining the origins, pathways, demographic impact and consequences for the public, the medical profession and governments, of the so-called “Spanish” influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, this … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The international crisis that began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 and culminated in the British declaration of war on Germany on 4 August is referred … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of the progress of nationalism and the national idea starting with its origins as a mass political programme during the French Revolution and tracing its passage up to … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • After an initial wave of interest in 1914 and the immediate post-war period, international historiography long neglected the wartime occupation of territories inhabited by large civilian populations. … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • While World War I featured the largest armies ever assembled, it was also fought by unprecedented numbers of paramilitary fighters. In a situation where the line between combatant and non-combatant … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The First World War marked the shift from a 19th century, relatively ''ad hoc'' management of prisoners of war, to the 20th century’s sophisticated prisoner of war camp … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article addresses the scale of wartime population displacement in continental Europe, the relief efforts made on behalf of refugees, their impact on host communities, and the cultural … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The conduct of warfare in 1914-1918 included extensive population resettlement in all theatres of war in Europe, both as a result of pre-emptive decisions by civilians to flee in order to evade the … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article surveys the various movements toward social, national, and political revolution that emerged during and in the wake of World War I. The Russian revolutions of 1917 serve as the first … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • This article offers an overview of peacemaking after the First World War from the armistices of 1918 until 1923. It considers the outcomes of the five Parisian treaties (Versailles, Saint-Germain and … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Imperialism shaped almost every facet of international politics from 1898 to 1914. Imperial concerns brought Britain into entente relationships with France and Russia. This Triple Entente often … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • The Balkan Wars erupted in South Eastern Europe in October 1912. Fighting continued intermittently in the region until July 1914. As the First World War expanded into much of Europe, fighting … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • Military sources provide the primary statistics of war losses and casualties during World War I. In order to review and eventually revise their figures, one must understand how military statistics … READ MORE

    Thematic
  • It may surprise us to learn that some sectors of the European public were in favour of the war in 1914. The impact of modern weapons was not well understood and many people in the government, … READ MORE

    Thematic

Survey Articles (Regional)

  • Though largely understudied to date, the regions in the western Balkans inhabited by Albanian speakers were afflicted by World War I in distinctive ways. The parceling out of former Ottoman lands to … READ MORE

    Regional
  • From 1912 to 1918 Bulgaria engaged in a prolonged conflict that began in victory in 1913 and ended in defeat in 1918. During that period, the conflict exhausted Bulgaria’s manpower and material … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Greece officially entered the Great War rather belatedly in June 1917, despite informal involvement since 1914. The war divided Greek political elites, leading the whole country into a civil strife … READ MORE

    Regional
  • Montenegro entered the First World War politically and militarily exhausted. The outcome of the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1912 and 1913 had a devastating impact on the future of Montenegro. … READ MORE

    Regional
  • World War I afforded the first opportunity for modern Romania to participate in a war which had a larger than regional horizon (South East Europe). The most important reason for participation was … READ MORE

    Regional
  • A short synthesis on Serbia's role and experience in the Great War encompasses several questions that still provoke controversies and offer many carefully reexamined data on issues such as war … READ MORE

    Regional
  • The idea for the unification of the Southern Slavs emerged in the 19th century and the strength of its appeal varied over the course of its development. During the First World War, … READ MORE

    Regional

Regional Thematic Articles

Encyclopedic Entries

  • The Balkan Wars were two sharp conflicts that heralded the onset of World War I. In the First Balkan War a loose alliance of Balkan States eliminated the Ottoman Empire from most of Europe. In the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • This article looks at the Black Hand from its origins to the demise of its leader, Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis", in the Salonika Trial of 1917, focussing on the role the association played in … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Liberal Prime Minister Ionel Brătianu led the charge to transform Romania's foreign policy, after three decades on the same side with the Triple … READ MORE

    Entry
  • For three decades Romania’s foreign policy depended almost entirely upon King Carol I’s will. The secret alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was his sole political project. His death, which … READ MORE

    Entry
  • ''Chetnik'' is a common name for a member of the auxiliary or paramilitary units used by the Serbian army for guerrilla warfare during the Great War. The ''chetnik'' tradition dates from the time of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Count Heinrich Karl Clam-Martinic was a German-speaking Bohemian high aristocrat and close friend to heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Under Emperor and King Charles I, Clam-Martinic was … READ MORE

    Entry
  • King Constantine I, a brave army officer but rather controversial in his political choices, is mainly known for his strong disagreement with Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos over the role of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Corfu Declaration was a formal agreement between the government-in-exile of the kingdom of Serbia and the Yugoslav Committee (anti-Habsburg South Slav émigrés) that pledged to unify Serbia with … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria undoubtedly contributed to the modernization of the country. His name, however, is linked to two national catastrophes: Bulgaria’s participation in the Second Balkan … READ MORE

    Entry
  • A Romanian politician, Dumitru Ionescu, commonly known as Take Ionescu, was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the most erudite statesmen in Eastern Europe. He was one of the main … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Bishop Jeglič was one of the most prominent Slovenian Church figures in the era leading up to the outbreak of the First World War. His political actions during the war decisively shaped the … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Peter I Karadjordjević was King of Serbia from 1903 to 1918, and King of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from 1918 to 1921. He also translated the essay “On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Situated above the Austro-Hungarian naval base in the Bay of Kotor, Mount Lovćen was extremely important for both the Central Powers and the Entente. The mountain was a symbol of Montenegrin … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Macedonia was one of the main battlefields on the Balkan Front during World War I. The article describes the pre-war activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), its role … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ioannis Metaxas was a conservative army officer and politician, who influenced decision-making in Greece during World War I by collaborating with King Constantine I. In 1936 he became head of an … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Movement of National Defence was an organisation of Venizelist army officers and politicians who rose up against the royalist government in Athens in August 1916. They established a separate … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Treaty of Neuilly was signed on 27 November 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allied and Associated Powers in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Its territorial clauses were considered by Bulgarian society … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Nikola Pašić was a Serbian/Yugoslav politician and statesman. He served twenty-two terms as prime minister and fourteen terms as foreign minister, some only a few months … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Kosta Pecanac was a prominent ''chetnik'' leader before the Great War and one of the leaders of the Toplica uprising against the Bulgarian and Austro-Hungarian occupation of Serbia in 1917. Between … READ MORE

    Entry
  • The Prochaska Affair was a diplomatic dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, ostensibly concerning the fate of the Austro-Hungarian consul in Prizren. However, it carried deeper implications for … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Dr. Vasil Radoslavov was a Bulgarian politician and Prime Minister from 1913 to 1918. As Prime Minister he played a decisive role in Bulgaria’s decision to enter the First World War on the side of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although rape was not usually systematic, it occurred frequently on all fronts during the First World War, during both invasion and occupation periods. It was often used in propaganda to discredit … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Although ''sanjak'' usually means any one of many Ottoman administrative units, one has become known as “the Sanjak.” Following the Treaty of Berlin the Sanjak of Novi Pazar became the symbol of … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Stephan Baron von Sarkotić was an Austro-Hungarian general who had already made his mark as a political officer prior to the outbreak of World War I. During the war, he formulated different … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ivan Šušteršič was a leading figure in the Slovenian and Habsburg political milieu prior to and during World War One. A prominent member of the Catholic People’s Party, he was at the forefront … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Ante Trumbić was a Croat politician who played an instrumental role in the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) in December 1918. Between 1905 and 1934, he served in a … READ MORE

    Entry
  • One of the most prominent and important statesmen in modern Greek history, Eleutherios Venizelos full-heartedly favored Greek participation in World War I on the side of the Entente. This caused … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich Prince of Wied, born to a German Protestant noble family, reigned briefly as Prince of Albania from 7 March 1914 until 3 September 1914. In addition to domestic issues and … READ MORE

    Entry
  • Nikola Zhekov was a Bulgarian infantry general, the Bulgarian minister of war from August through October 1915, and commander-in-chief of the Bulgarian army during the First World War, from 1915 to … READ MORE

    Entry